Water demand

La comunidad de Caico Alto en Cochabamba-Bolivia está compuesta por 45 viviendas (225 habitantes). La principal actividad económica de la zona es agropecuaria con énfasis en la producción lechera. En la comunidad existen 270 vacas; es decir un promedio de 5 vacas por familia.
La comunidad cuenta actualmente con un pozo nuevo de capaz de producir un caudal de 4 litros/segundo.

A través del presente estudio se elaboraron cuatro escenarios distintos. Todos toman en cuenta una estación de bombeo que utiliza una bomba eléctrica sumergible y un sistema de presurización neumático (torre hidroneumática). Los escenarios difieren básicamente en su capacidad provisión de agua. A mayor volumen, mayor posibilidad de actividades productivas. Por otro lado a mayor capacidad, mayor inversión total requerida.

El documento realiza un estudio comparativo de los costos de invesrión de cuatro escenarios distintos domando encuenta dotaciones de 50,100,250 y 450 litros por persona por día respectivamente.

Para mayor información: http://aguatuya.com

[Anonymous].  2008.  Diseño y evaluación de alternativas para un sistema de uso múltiple de agua para la comunidad de Caico Alto, Cochabamba - Bolivia.
[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Análisis de las intervenciones del Programa PAAR en el Valle del Cauca.

El Programa de Abastecimiento de Agua Rural – PAAR surge en el año 2003 como una iniciativa interinstitucional con el objeto de diseñar y construir acueductos nuevos o adecuar sistemas existentes.

El PAAR ha intervenido en 29 de los 42 municipios del Valle del Cauca, en lugares con diversas características geográficas y que en su mayoría no superan los 2.500 habitantes. En todas las localidades analizadas hay presencia de actividades agrícolas y pecuarias, que son el sustento de sus habitantes.

El uso del agua “reportado” en el diseño es principalmente doméstico, teniendo como referencia el Reglamento de Agua Potable y Saneamiento – RAS -, asignando 150 l/hab*día. Sin embargo, estas dotaciones se han ajustado otorgando en algunos casos dotaciones superiores a los 170 l/hab*día, lo que permitiría la realización de actividades productivas de pequeña escala.

Las fuentes desde las cuales suministra agua el PAAR son principalmente superficiales y en algunos casos se utiliza más de 1 para suplir la demanda. Una vez puesto en funcionamiento, cada sistema debe sostenerse financieramente para lo cual se calculan tarifas con cargo fijo y por consumo. Estas tarifas se obtienen a través de la micromedición que exige el PAAR a las poblaciones que interviene.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  MUS at the farm level, Quindio microcatchment.

About agricultural and domestic use of water in the Quindio region, Colombia. Many aquaducts were built so that the water is available in rural areas. 

The attached paper is  in Spanish.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Colombia- Integrated water resources management at the farm level in Quindio.

The agricultural sector in Quindio includes coffee, bananas, livestock/ and diary farming as well as increasingly important diversification into tourism related activities. Coffee is not irrigated but requires large volumes of clean water for processing which is usually provided by piped water systems development and operated by coffee growing associations. These also serve domestic users. Technologies exist to reduce water consumption in processing from around 40 litres of water per kilo to coffee to around 1 litre, however these are expensive machines (USD3500). Livestock farming also requires a secure and clean water supply, and tourism increases the ‘domestic’ consumption of farms.

This study is focusing on three farms (coffee, diary, mixed with tourism activities) and the development of technical proposals to improve water use at the farm level. Different water sources are being assessed (quantity and quality) and different water uses (household, livestock, crops) analysed. Wastewater reuse options and solid waste disposal are also being considered. It is planned that the proposals will be implemented by the study farmers with the support of Cinara. At appropriate stages in the study, neighbouring farmers are being asked to comment on the proposals and to identify whether they can also apply some of the interventions.

Overall research question: How do different types of farms utilise water resources and dispose of wastewater, and what improved practices could be adopted to reduce demands and minimise pollution?

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Analysis of the PAAR Program Interventions in Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

The Rural Water Supply Program (PAAR) began in 2003 as an inter - institutional initiative with the purpose to design and build new water supply systems or to upgrade existing systems.

PAAR have worked in 29 of the 42 municipalities in Valle del Cauca focusing on settlements with a population under 2500 people. In all the settlements analyzed, agricultural activities were identified that are important for the livelihoods of their inhabitants.

The “reported” or intended use of water in the designs is domestic use, based on the Drinking Water and Sanitation Regulation, meaning 150 lpcd. However this allocation has been adjusted in practice to allow up to 170 lpcd, which is enough to develop small scale productive activities based on water.

The PAAR Program uses mainly small streams as sources for gravity fed water supply systems and in some cases, systems need to use more than one stream in order to satisfy the demand. When the systems are planned measures are taken to promote financial sustainability and for this reason, tariffs which include a fixed charge and a (metered) consumption charge are put in place. Meters are mandatory for the water supply systems built by PAAR.

[Anonymous].  2007.  Colombia- CINARA Research on multiple-use water services: synthesis and lessons learnt.

This report (in Spanish) synthesizes results of over ten completed projects and theses by students at Cinara on multiple uses of water. It draws out general recommendations for implementing multiple-use services at community-level and upscaling at intermediate- and national level.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Documento de caso acueuducto La Palma Tres Puertas.

Contiene el caso de estudio desarrollado en el acueducto de La Palma - Tres Puertas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca - Colombia)

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Colombia- Multiple uses of water in the La Palma -Tres Puertas water supply system, Valle del Cauca.

The La Palma - Tres Puertas water supply system is located in a rural area of the Restrepo Municipality in Valle del Cauca Department, Colombia. This system provides water to 1800 people living in 7 villages. It was built 30 years ago by the Coffee Committee but improved in 2004, when the PAAR Program increased the quantity of water via an additional water supply pipe from another stream. Water could then be supplied four times a week, compared to just two times a week previously.

People who live in the settlements served by the water supply system have developed agricultural activities in and around the household: in 83% of the households there is one productive activity at least, like gardening or keeping livestock. Those activities demand water and people use the water supply system to satisfy these needs. In 18% of households, people use the water supply for livestock, 25% irrigate crops and 39% use water for both keeping livestock and irrigate crops. The system supplies 98% of domestic water needs. This situation of mixed use results in high levels of water consumption: whereas 30% of households have consumptions under 40 m3 every two months (133 lpcd) (typically domestic users), 53% have consumptions between 41 – 100 m3 every two months (137 – 333 lpcd) indicating that they use the system to support livelihoods, and 17% register consumptions over 100 m3 every two months (> 333 lpcd) linked to developing commercial activities.

In the villages, 37% of household heads are farm owners and 22% work for other farm owners. These occupations depend directly on the water supply system. Most of the people served by this system have incomes between US$ 90 / month and US$180 / month. Such low incomes limit the capacity to pay of users to pay for the service. At the moment the fee is US$ 1.4 per month, for those who have water consumptions up to 25 m3, and US$ 0.07 for each m3 extra. The water supply system has many technical and management problems, that make it difficult to provide the service. Water pipes are obsolete and the community organisation is weak, with all the responsibility assumed by its president. Community participation is low and the environmental authority provides little support. There is no control of a multi-national that plants commercial trees up to the border of the stream in one of the micro-catchments, upon which the water supply system is dependent. This has apparently caused serious impacts on the quality and availability of water.

This investigation analysed this water supply system as a “de-facto” multiple uses system, and identifies proposals in order to improve the service. This proposals are related to water resource conservation, reducing loss of water in the system, improving the use of water in domestic activities, using alternative sources of water, improving the quality of drinking water at home, efficient use of water for productive activities (irrigation and keeping livestock), improving management and implementing different fees for the different users of the water supply system.

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