Small reservoirs are structures that capture and store runoff at catchment level. The surface area of majority of these reservoirs ranges from 3 to 30 ha. In Burkina Faso, a small reservoir is defined by the height of the dam, which should be below 10 m. They have multiple uses: irrigation during dry spells, fishing, livestock watering, domestic use and groundwater recharge through increased infiltration. Although one of the major uses of small reservoirs in the Volta River Basin is for livestock watering, there is limited information, if any, on how livestock management practices affect this use. This study was conducted in communities using five small reservoirs (Bagyalgo, Soumyalga, Goinre, Ninighi and Thiou) in Yatenga Province of Burkina Faso in the Volta River Basin. The aim of the study was to document the multiple uses of small reservoirs in the study sites with an emphasis on access to, and use by, livestock, and conflicts that arise over the use of these reservoirs. Specifically, the objectives of this study are to: (i) document the multiple uses of small reservoirs with a focus on how livestock management practices affect this use; and (ii) identify the proximate and long-term causes of livestock-related conflicts with regard to multiple uses of small reservoirs and strategies to manage them. The results of this study have confirmed the commonly reported trend of the increasing use of the small reservoirs for vegetable production, even though most of the small reservoirs were initially constructed for livestock watering. The competition for use of these small reservoirs for vegetable production and livestock watering is the main challenge to the management of these reservoirs in the study sites. Adult males and boys accounted for at least 60% of the users of small reservoirs in this study. Livestock watering was carried out mainly by adult males and boys, whereas the use of small reservoirs for domestic purposes was dominated by adult females and girls. In addition to the provision of water for livestock, small reservoirs also contributed to supplying feed resources for livestock by providing green forage in the dry season, which accounted for at least 5% of the total dry matter feed. None of the five small reservoirs in the study were used for fodder production. Increased competition over the use of small reservoirs, damage caused by livestock to irrigated crops and vegetables, and an increased number of livestock using the small reservoirs were ranked as the most important causes of conflict. However, most cases of conflict over the use of the small reservoirs were resolved at the community level. Peaceful coexistence in the use of the small reservoirs for vegetable production and livestock watering is essential for reducing the incidence of conflict, and this will require engagement of key stakeholders such as vegetable growers’ associations and livestock keepers’ associations.