This report synthesizes experiences with various multiple-use water schemes by design in the Adidaero (NGO-supported multi-purpose facilities) and Wukro watersheds (government-supported homestead water harvesting ponds and shallow wells) in Tigray Region. It identifies technological, institutional, and financial factors that help and hinder sustainable multiple uses of water resources for improved livelihoods. The report is based on longitudinal field research, two MSc theses (water harvesting ponds for home gardens and water quality of water harvesting ponds and shallow wells) and three MSc theses (shallow wells for crop production; household uses of ponds; groundwater).
A power point presentation giving a brief overview of the institutions involved in the DAP II project in the Legedini peasant association.
Working Title: The institutional environment and the local coping strategies within a MUS system in Legedinini PA, Dire Dawa Administrative Council, Ethiopia
Abstract: The principal study area for this thesis research was the Legedini Peasant Association in Eastern Ethiopia in the Dire Dawa Council, situated in the arid lowlands below 1500m and characterized by degraded land with erratic rainfall and no surface water. The people practice mixed subsistence farming, though cannot be self-sufficient and therefore depend on food aid. End 2002 a borehole for domestic water supply was installed with a submerged pump powered by a diesel generator, plus additional infrastructure. At the same time a nearby spring in the same watershed was developed. Besides the new water system, new crops and innovative methods of irrigation were introduced. All these measures created big expectations in the communities for the future, of being able to produce for the market and move beyond their food insecurity. Indeed these improved infrastructures and new practices brought benefits but also introduced new risks, dependencies and vulnerabilities. The vulnerability of this system became apparent when the pump broke down two years after becoming operational. The selected technology appeared to be too complicated, too costly, and not sufficient imbedded in the institutional framework for this area and therefore not sustainable. The solution for improving rural livelihoods by promoting productive uses of water should be sought in creating other water source options and technologies that are affordable, developing alternative sources of income or accepting the fact that the people will stay dependent on external aid.
A power point presentation giving an overview of water quality and multiple uses in the Peasant Assocation of Legedini and Dire Dawa.
Working Title: Two containers a day- the search for proper water sources in Eastern Ethiopia. Water Quality and Sanitation in the Lege Dini Watershed Area, Ethiopia
Abstract: In this research the possibilities of MUS are explored in a case-study watershed; the watershed of Legedini. The health situation in this area was poor. Many people suffered from diseases like diarrhea, vomiting and less frequently malaria. Clean drinking water was available in five out of eleven villages and inhabitants without access to tap water were forced to drink water from contaminated well and ponds. The quantity of water was also not sufficient for all domestic and agricultural uses. This made it impossible for the area to become self-sufficient. Although many NGO’s and other development agencies were active in the area, the aid-service was poor coordinated. The result of this was that although the operating organizations invented good and effective solutions for the water and health problems in Legedini, these were unfortunately not widely adopted. Only the participants of an education program were often willing to change their habits. An annual assembly of development organizations, in which the plans and projects for the coming year would be discussed, would eliminate the communication and coordination problems.
By investigating the water sources, two turned out to be suitable for drinking water. The discharge of these two sources was also sufficient for the whole population of Legedini. Other sources were suitable for livestock and irrigation. The EC-level is rather high for irrigation, but since there is no other source available, irrigators should select tolerant species like tomatoes to grow on their plots. Most farmers mention that they see irrigation and selling cash crops on the market as one of the opportunities towards self-sustainability.
The MUS-approach seems to have positive effects on the health situation in Legedini and contributes to the goal of self-reliability. A healthy environment is the basis for fewer diseases and therewith more manpower for farming and other income generating activities. A threshold for implementing MUS worldwide will be the distance between village and source in the case of ‘multiple sources for multiple uses’. The walking distances for remote villages in order to obtain clean drinking water will be too large. A threshold for ‘multiple uses in one system’ will be the cooperation between ministries of health and ministries of agriculture, which is difficult to establish in a bureaucratic setting.
A power point presentation on water productivity from a gendered livelihood perspective.
A draft case study report which will contribute to a description of the general features related to livestock in livelihoods. It will propose indicators to measure the impact of MUS on the uses and users of livestock in this system.
Working Title: Beyond fetching water for livestock: A gendered sustainable livelihood framework to assess livestock-water productivity in Legedini by Esther van Hoeve, Barbara van Koppen, Eline Boelee
Abstract: Livestock water productivity is defined as the amount of water depleted or diverted to produce livestock and livestock products and services (Sonder et al, in prep). However, different livestock species and their products vary in terms of their values and contributions for men and women in reaching livelihood objectives. Similarly, various livestock production systems generate different costs for men and women, resulting from gendered control and access.
In this paper we propose a Gendered Sustainable Livelihood Framework (GSLF), focusing on poor livestock keepers. The framework gives guidance on how to better include gender perspective in holistic assessments and subsequent use of livestock water productivity information and interventions. We use the five assets of the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) to allow an asset based assessment, taking into account access and control mechanisms which are important aspects of gender studies. The GSLF is best applied using participatory discussion tools in order to ensure a common understanding of the issues.
Catholic Relief Services and their partners have implemented several multipurpose water systems in East and Northern Ethiopia. Some started as domestic systems, while some were from the start designed to deliver multiple use water services. Download presentation.
Multiple Water Use System (MUS) is a combination of facilities for both productive and domestic water use to meet the multiple needs of water in the community. Operation and maintenance of such facilities require a collective action by the users of irrigation facilities, water points, cattle trough or washing basins. One of the conditions to create an enabling environment for collective action is a common understanding of a particular issue between individuals. Differences in values and interests held between them often challenge the process of developing such an understanding. MUS, intending to cater for diverse needs, challenges the assumption of collective action by involving different users’ groups with varying levels of interests and needs in water use.
Gender relations, although being a critical factor in understanding the mechanism of collective action, are embedded in a society and often invisible. They can be overlooked in the process of organizing collective action. This paper examines how the gender relations affect the management of irrigation, water point and irrigation with multi-purpose facilities in Adidaero watershed in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia and analyzed by using the Gender Performance Indicator for Irrigation.