Ayalew D.  Submitted.  Ethiopia - parasite infections among children in Dire Dawa.

Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar are ubiquitous protozoan parasites that affect humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the world and have been highlighted as significant waterborne parasitic pathogens. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of the three parasitic infections among children using protected and unprotected water sources in three rural sites (Legedini, Adada and Legebira) in Dire-Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia from November 2005 May 2006. Single stool specimens were collected from a total of 1894 children under14 years of age and processed for C. parvum using Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Giardia, amoeba and other intestinal parasites were detected using formalin-ether concentration and by direct wet mount methods. Out of 1894 children examined, 225 (11.9%), 719 (38%) and 639 (33.7%) were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, respectively. The prevalence of giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and amoebiasis during wet season sampling was significantly higher than the dry season in all study sites. On the other hand, no difference was observed in the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis and amoebiasis between children drinking water from protected and unprotected sources in Legedini and Legebira while in Adada significantly high prevalence was observed for the unprotected. The insignificant difference in prevalence between children using the two water sources indicates the presence of contamination of the drinking water at some point before consumption and also indicates the poor personal hygiene and environmental sanitation of the community. The prevalence of giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and amoebiasis in relation to sex group showed no statistically significant difference. On the other hand, lower age groups had a higher prevalence of infection with giardiasis and amoebiasis, and infections with cryptosporidiosis was not related with age. Co-infections were also detected in 25.4% of the study subjects. In addition, other non-pathogenic intestinal parasites such as Iodoamoeba butschilii, Entamoeba coli, Chilomasix mesnelli and Endolimax nana were also detected in the study, which is an indication of fecal contamination of the drinking water source. Providing high quality drinking water may not significantly reduce the incidence of intestinal parasites other factors such as unhygienic and unsanitary situations overwhelm the beneficial effects of protected water sources. In addition untreated protected drinking water sources are not free of the waterborne parasitic pathogens. Therefore, health education in related to personal hygiene and environmental sanitation and cost effective water purification mechanisms such as boiling and chlorination and others will help in enhancing the health and well-being of the community particularly that of children.  

Hagos GLemma.  Submitted.  Ethiopia - The role of household ponds in the expansion of homegardens in Tigray.

In three districts of Tigray, northern part of Ethiopia, namely: Hintalo Wajerate, Kilte Awulaelo,
Atsbi Wonberta, a study was conducted to assess the role of household ponds on the expansion of
homegarden and to evaluate the water productivity of household ponds. The methods that were
employed for the study were semi structured questionnaire, field observation, tree inventory, tree
growth measurement and analysis of water productivity of ponds by using water balance models
and water use efficiency indicators. Accordingly, the result of the study indicated that the
construction of household ponds has a great contribution on the expansion of homegardens. The
survival and growth of trees has improved by 15 % and 22 % respectively and the diversity of trees
planted has shown a significant increase. Furthermore, the water productivity result indicated that
the unit crop production per unit supplementary irrigation applied was 75% lower than the
maximum potential water productivity; and the average economic productivity of the pond was
estimated to be 3.8 ETB per cubic meter of water. The study reveals that among the reasons for low
water productivity were inefficient water application and withdrawal method, poor knowledge of
irrigation scheduling, poor selection of crop type and cropping calendar. It was also tried to
quantify some problems in relation to design and implementation approach. Accordingly, because
of the poor design (Trapezoidal shape) the average evaporation loss directly from the ponds was 13
% of the harvested water and the space occupied by the ponds is about 40 % of the land available in
their backyard. Hence, household ponds are more effective and productive when they are
constructed near homesteads for better management. To minimize the direct evaporation loss and
space occupied by trapezoidal ponds other alternatives design needs to be considered. Moreover, in
order to improve the water productivity, introduction of simple family drip irrigation system and
acquainting farmers with scientific irrigation water management system could be among the better

Tulu M.  Submitted.  Ethiopia - estimation of productivity of water harvesting projects.

Water scarcity in these days is a real threat to food production for millions of people in arid and semiarid areas of developing countries. As water becomes one of the most scarce resources in these poor developing countries, the only option available to get out of poverty is to improve the productivity of water in every sector of production. Currently, in some of water stressed areas of Ethiopia, water harvesting technologies are being introduced in the view to secure food through irrigation practices. The major objective of this paper is, therefore, to estimate livestock, domestic use and crop water productivities of SG-2000 water harvesting pilot projects in Ethiopia. The research work is entirely based upon secondary data obtained from various organizations and publications. The water productivity magnitudes for livestock, domestic and crop productions are found to be Birr* 40.71, 213.42 and 8.04 per m3 of water respectively. To show the importance of the opportunity cost of water, these productivity values are recalculated taking the market price of water in rural areas as the denominator. As the result, livestock, domestic use and crop water productivity magnitudes, respectively, are birr 1.63, 8.54 and 0.32 per birr of water. The research finding shows that water used for domestic use and livestock generates the greatest benefit for rural households.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Technical exchange vist to RAIN's programme in Ethiopia.

Powerpointpresentation held at the MUS Group Meeting 2009 in Rome, anonymus, on RAIN Foundation and its Partners in Ethiopia and MUS Integration.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  MUS in the programmes of HCS and RIPPLE.

Powerpointpresentation held at the MUS Group Meeting 2009 in Rome by Zemede on Hararghe Catholic Secretariat (HCS) and RIPPLE.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Ethiopia - Gender Implications in Managing Multiple Water Supply Systems.

This study investigated how the local gender relations affected men and women community members’ participation in the management of single source and multiple source MUS. These facilities improved the access to water by men and women water users. Especially, villagers who acquired access to water points have increased the volume of water they used. Although, the amount was still not sufficient to significantly improve personal hygiene, they have acquired access to better quality of water within their reach. In terms of irrigation, some farmers have been reported to have earned substantial income from the produce from the irrigated land. A few farmers around the single source MUS developed the plot where they used their share of the irrigation water. Among the committee members of each facility, women did not assume any of the leading position as chairperson or vice chairperson but worked as treasurer or observer.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Ethiopia: costs and benefits of multiple use.

Powerpoint presentation by Zemede Abebe [and others], RIPPLE MUS Research Team, given at the World Water Forum in Turkey, 2009.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Report on fieldwork in the Tigray Region.

A power point presentation giving an overview of fieldwork in the Adidaero Watershed in Enderta Wereda, Tigray Region.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  A report on the community level assessment of MUS in Northern Ethiopia.

A fieldwork report on community level assessment on the understanding of the existing multiple-water use system, Northern Ethiopia.