This guideline has been developed for MUS projects in Zimbabwe. It aims to help addressing water for livelihoods in a structured way in different steps of the project cycle. It is geared towards district level staff, who work on the provision of water supply to rural communities.It provides tools and methods which can be used as complement to existing guidelines for WASH project, to specifically include livelihoods. This guide consists of three parts:
Part 1: conceptual framework. This part aims to define key concepts in relation to water and livelidhoods
Part 2: addressing water and livelihoods in the project cycle.
Part 3: tools and methods. This part provides tools and methods that can be used in the planning process
This case study captures de facto MUS practices in 14 communities in Honduras. Specifically, it looks into the question of how such practices contribute to people's livelihoods and how they contribute to sustainability of the rural water supply services. It concludes that MUS is a common practice in nearly all households and in nearly all communities. The relative importance of MUS, however, depends on the livelihood strategy of a household. The study also shows how MUS can be regulated in such a way that it doesn't negatively affect system sustainability.
A study report published by and written on behalf of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Mapping systems and Services for Multiple Uses (MASSMUS) is a module for assessing non-crop water uses in an irrigation scheme within the general approach developed by FAO for auditing the irrigation system management called MASSCOTE (Mapping Systems and Services for Canal Operation Techniques). The need to develop specific approach to multiple uses of water in an irrigation system stemmed from an analysis of 30 irrigation schemes, which revealed that non-crop water use and multiple functions of irrigation schemes were more of a norm than the exception.
The Krishna Western Delta System is located in South India in the state of Andhra Pradesh –on the right bank of the downstream stretches of the Krishna river, along the sea coast (Bay of Bengale). The climate of the Krishna Western Delta is dominated by the southwest monsoon which provides most of the precipitation for the region. The mean annual rainfall amounts to 800 - 900 mm, and about 90% of the rainfall is received during the monsoon months of May to October. The climate can be classified as sub-humid, with minimum and maximum average temperatures ranging from 12.8 to 26.0 °C and 29.7 to 46.5 °C respectively. [authors abstract]
In December 2010, a technical exchange visit was organised between FAO and IRC. The objective of this visit was to further develop the "domestic water supply and sanitation" component of the MASSMUS methodology for assessing multiple uses of water in large-scale irrigation systems. This component was field-tested in the Krishna Western Delta irrigation system, in Andhra Pradesh, India.
The main conclusions with respect to domestic uses is that the most important contributions irrigation makes to domestic supplies is through direct supply of bulk water to city, towns and villages from canals, and through indirect use of groundwater. This is to some extent reflected also in canal operation procedures, where priority is given to filling reservoirs and village tanks for domestic uses. However, domestic water users are not represented in the governance structure of the irrigation system. One area of concern is the lack of adequate wastewater management facilities. As a result, wastewater is used in an untreated manner for irrigation. Although the extent of this is limited compared to conventional irrigation practices, locally it represents an important source of water.
Apart from domestic uses, the KWD also supports other uses of water. These include food production, fish and aquaculture and animal husbandry. A relatively large part of water in the command area is consumed by natural vegetation. In terms of the value created by these different uses, the KWD shows a similar pattern as other similar irrigation systems in the region, with crop production representing 60% of the total value created, with the rest shared between the other uses.
This MSc internship report provides an evaluation of a MUS system, developed by IDE, in Phulbari village in the Nepali middle hills. Specifically it evaluates the performance of the technology and assesses the benefits for the farmers, using IDE‘s definition of impact. It shows that cost-recovery of the system is one year; in such a short time enough benefit can be generated through vegetable production to recover the investment costs. In addition, it reports on improved intra-household equity. One of the points of improvement is the strengthening of water user committees for MUS.
Many farms in tropical countries suffer from droughts in the dry season and sometimes even in the rainy season. In order to significantly increase the capacity to store water, the grassroots Farmer Wisdom movement in Northeast Thailand innovated pond construction on homesteads. This Working Paper first documents how pond water is mainly used to irrigate crops and fruit trees, and is also used for livestock or fish, and for domestic uses, even if ample piped water is available. Households were also found to harvest rainwater from roofs; take water from canals and streams; lift water manually from shallow wells and with electric pumps from deep wells; channel run-off from roads to paddy fields; use precipitation as green water on fields; and buy bottled water. Most households combine at least six of these nine water sources. The second part describes scenarios and some outcomes of a new simulation model, BoNam. This model provides guidelines for the optimal size and site of such ponds according to biophysical factors (weather, soil and crops), socioeconomic factors (prices, availability of labor and off-farm income) and household aspirations
This fact sheet, produced by Isabel Dominguez (WEDC/Cinara) provides a briefing on the role of multiple uses of water for the poor in rural areas of Latin America and the Carribean.
This thesis by Pragya Shrestha aims to analyse MUS in terms of its cost effectiveness in domestic water supply services and conduct poverty impact analysis, taking a case study of Nepal. The study provides evidence of the very positive cost-effectiveness, as well as of other livelihood benefits, such as increase in saving and credit groups, getting access to luxury items, initiating other income generating activities and having better access to high-value food such as fresh vegetables. It concludes that MUS is not only a financially profitable investment, but is also beneficial in terms of social development. There is a high potential for the MUS in countries like Nepal, if its challenges are addressed.
This thesis report studies the water balance in a MUS system in Colombia. It shows amongst others the importance of identifying different strata of users in the system, as these have different consumption patterns. Using the water balance concept, it shows the relative importance of water supply from the system and greenwater for different domestic and productive uses.