Poor people in developing countries need water for many purposes: for drinking, bathing, irrigating vegetable gardens, and watering livestock. However, responsibility for water services is divided between different government agencies, the WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) and irrigation sub-sectors, with the result that people's holistic needs are not met. Multiple use water services (MUS) is a participatory water services approach that takes account of poor people's multiple water needs as a starting point of planning, and the approach has been implemented in at least 22 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Scaling up Multiple Use Water Services argues that by designing cost-effective multi-purpose infrastructure MUS can have a positive impact on people's health and livelihoods. It analyses and explains the success factors of MUS, using a framework of accountability for public service delivery, and it also examines why there has been resistance against scaling up MUS. A stronger service delivery approach can overcome this resistance, by rewarding more livelihood outcomes, by fostering discretionary decision-making power of local-level staff and by allowing horizontal coordination.This book should be read by government and aid agency policy makers in the WASH and agriculture sectors, by development field workers, and by academics, researchers and students of international development.
Presentation of findings of a DFID study carried out by the University of Leeds, University of North Carolina, University of East Anglia and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
This scoping study offers implementable recommendations for investment opportunities in multiple use water services in Ghana. The report is based on an assessment of existing MUS modalities and innovations, potential for implementation and possible barriers. The study shows that MUS is a de facto practice both in formal domestic and irrigation service delivery, complemented by self-supply initiatives. Moving from de facto multiple use practices to a more planned and structured MUS approach can be done from various entry-points. Based on risk assessments, this study concludes that domestic-plus, rehabilitation of small reservoirs and self-supply for irrigation present the best direct investment opportunities for maximum impact.
In this presentation, Minta Aboagye provides the perspective of a policy maker from Ghana on MUS, and the implications and questions this raises from a policy perspective.
L. Raschid-Sally, D. Van Rooijen & E. Abraham: Analysing productive use of domestic water and wastewater for urban livelihoods of the poor – a study from Accra, Ghana.
Using Accra as an example, the paper records the different urban livelihood activities that utilize domestic water/wastewater, quantifies such use and presents a framework for planning multiple uses in an urban context. The paper provides insights to city planners, water authorities, and researchers on the wide range of ‘other uses’ that urban domestic water supply and wastewater is utilized for and how to quantify such use. From preliminary findings we conclude that the interests of people who use domestic water for livelihood purposes can be better accounted for under conditions of improved access, which will reduce the price they pay for water and increase their profit margin. The constraining factor for making productive use of water is not so much water shortage, as inequity of water access in the city. In the case of wastewater, managing the risk is essential for ensuring sustainability of these livelihoods. [authors abstract]
G. K. Adu-Wusu, L. Roberts & K. A. Debrah: Experiences on Multiple Use Dams in Sissala West District, Ghana
Plan Ghana works in the Sissala West district in north-western Ghana. The main livelihood of indigenes is rain-fed farming and livestock rearing. Northern Ghana experiences an 8-month long dry season each year, during which farming and livestock watering become extremely difficult. Food shortages occur and people lose their animals. Moreover, rainfall patterns are irregular, causing young crops to wither in incidental prolonged dry periods, a situation aggravated by climate changes. Plan partner communities requested support for the construction of dam facilities to support dry season farming and livestock watering. After feasibility studies, 8 dams were constructed with the aim of improving livelihoods and health of people through sale and consumption of produce from the following intended uses; Irrigation, Fish farming and Livestock watering. Over 1000 households are benefiting from the dams. A total of 95 hectares of land has been put under irrigation growing mainly vegetables. Leafy vegetables are now available on the market in the dam communities. Income levels have increased through the sale of surplus produce. Some community members have taken up fishing whilst livestock have sufficient water. Apart from the intended uses of the dams, they are serving other practical water needs which were not catered for in the design, and bring in additional sources of income; Moulding bricks, Watering dirt-roads and Household cleaning. Data collection on use demands and patterns, especially on the unexpected additional activities, needs to be continued to guide future multiple use of water projects in Plan’s MUS programme.[authors abstract]