[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Effects of MUS on the sustainability of rural water supply services in Honduras.

Stef Smits, Túpac Mejía, Senia Eben Rodríguez and Damián Suazo: Effects of multiple use of water on the sustainability of rural water supply services in Honduras

The de facto use of rural water supply systems for productive purposes is a practice that has recently received recognition in Honduras. This paper presents the results of a study that tried to further characterise this existing practice in a more structured way through 14 case studies, in particular analyzing its effects on people’s livelihoods as well as on sustainability in service provision. The cases show the nearly universal existence of productive use of rural water supplies, but showed that the extent of the uses and the relative importance in people’s livelihoods differs a lot between different user categories. Although this de facto use of rural water supply systems may bring risks for sustainability in service provision, the cases also showed that a number of relatively simple measures can help in regulating water use. The authors believe that multiple use of water can be accommodated into service provision in such a way that it doesn’t cause negative impacts. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Characterising MUS at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries.

S. Smits, B. van Koppen and P. Moriarty: Characterising the multiple use approach at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries

Multiple-use services (MUS) have gained increased attention, as an approach to of providing water services that meet people’s multiple water needs in an integrated manner. This paper tries to characterise key elements of mus at community level, and assesses performance through a review of case studies conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The cases show that people almost universally use water for domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. The case studies demonstrate how levels of access can be provided by different types and combinations of technologies, and incremental changes made. These need to be accompanied by additional financial and management measures to ensure sustainability of services. The additional requirements posed are considered not to be insurmountable and can all be addressed in a feasible manner, and often justified by the additional benefits. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Multiple uses of water: a view from the reality of rural communities and national politics in Colombia.

I. Domínguez, S. Corrales, I. Restrepo, J.A. Butterworth: Multiple uses of water: a view from the reality of rural communities and national politics in Colombia

The water needs of people living in rural areas are integrated, and take into account personal hygiene, drinking water, food preparation and small scale productive activities. These activities are all important to provide food security, income and reduce the vulnerability of poor people. The interventions made by water supply projects that follow national policies and regulations in Colombia are, like in many other countries, fragmented and usually neglect innovative approaches. Innovative approaches that consider all basic water related activities linked to livelihoods can make a significant difference to household economies in poor areas. This paper presents evidence on how families manage water in rural areas of the Valle del Cauca Department (Colombia), and how this reality has been ignored by national policies and regulation. Proposals to reduce the gap between rural practice and policies for this sector are also suggested. These recommendations should help policy makers to take the rural context into account, to improve the regulations, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, equity and sustainable development. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Service Oriented Management and MUS in Modernizing Large Irrigation Systems.

D. Renault: Service Oriented Management and Multiple Uses of Water in Modernizing Large Irrigation Systems

20 large irrigation systems (average system size is 171.000 ha) mainly in Asia are scrutinized for multiple uses, functions and purposes. Most of them have been investigated by FAO as part of its program on irrigation modernization. The concept of Service Oriented Management (SOM) is central in the latest developed approach, called MASSCOTE [Mapping Systems and Services for Canal Operation Techniques]. This SOM approach on irrigation systems paves the way to identifying multiple uses and functions of water services within the gross command area of these systems. Analysis shows that only two systems out of 20 can be classified strictly as single use, all the other systems, are dealing, with varying degree, with multiple water uses, multiple functions, and/or externalities within their command area and therefore can be qualified as medium or high Multiple Uses of Water Services (MUS) system. Not many irrigation systems are designed/developed for providing service for multiple water uses, or are integrating MUS in absolute terms, but not many systems rank high in service oriented management either. However many systems (7) are already following practices related to MUS, only 6 systems have low MUS integration. It is found that the higher the degree of MUS the higher the integration of SOM in the management. High SOM level goes always with high integration of any other use when practiced in the command area. For some low SOM systems integration of MUSF in the management is still made at a similar low level as the one practice for crop water services. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Productive use of domestic water and wastewater in urban Accra, Ghana.

L. Raschid-Sally, D. Van Rooijen & E. Abraham: Analysing productive use of domestic water and wastewater for urban livelihoods of the poor – a study from Accra, Ghana.

Using Accra as an example, the paper records the different urban livelihood activities that utilize domestic water/wastewater, quantifies such use and presents a framework for planning multiple uses in an urban context. The paper provides insights to city planners, water authorities, and researchers on the wide range of ‘other uses’ that urban domestic water supply and wastewater is utilized for and how to quantify such use. From preliminary findings we conclude that the interests of people who use domestic water for livelihood purposes can be better accounted for under conditions of improved access, which will reduce the price they pay for water and increase their profit margin. The constraining factor for making productive use of water is not so much water shortage, as inequity of water access in the city. In the case of wastewater, managing the risk is essential for ensuring sustainability of these livelihoods. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Sources of Water for Household Enterprises in Rural Vietnam.

S. Noel: Sources of Water for Household Enterprises in Rural Vietnam

Small-scale productive activities undertaken in and around the household (e.g., kitchen gardens, raising of livestock, small businesses) require adequate quality and quantities of domestic water to operate. The research analyzed 189 purpose-collected household surveys from 6 villages in 3 provinces in rural areas of Vietnam to investigate patterns of use of domestic water and the impact on household-based productive activities. The findings indicate that these enterprises almost exclusively used ecosystem water, primarily well water, rainwater and water from rivers and lakes. This result held even in villages where piped water was available within the household plot. The conclusions emphasize the importance of natural capital in rural livelihood activities and suggest that patterns of development which draw down wealth in terms of natural capital stocks may adversely affect the poor in developing countries in the long run, even while raising GDP per capita in the short to medium term. [authors abstract]

The full paper has been published in the Water Policy journal.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Analysis of the MUS learning alliance process in Nepal.

Monique Mikhail and Robert Yoder: Analysis of the MUS learning alliance process in Nepal

This paper draws on research conducted by International Development Enterprises (IDE) in Nepal as part of a multi-country action-research project on Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS) approaches. As one component of the action-research project, IDE-Nepal fostered a MUS learning alliance of government and non-government organizational partners to share the multiple-use concept, obtain support for project implementation, and explore methods for scale-up of the approach within Nepal. The paper analyzes the two-pronged learning alliance method used at the community, district, and national levels including the successful linkages and critical gaps. The genesis of partner thought throughout the learning alliance process is outlined and the various outcomes and drawbacks at the community, district, and national levels explored. Various barriers to scale-up of the MUS approach are catalogued, and strategies suggested by partners discussed. In addition, the paper includes an internal reflection of the experience of employing the learning alliance approach, future directions of IDE’s involvement, and the constraints faced. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Small and large scale water supply infrastructure for MUS in South Africa.

S. Mashicila: Evolving mechanisms to implement a range of small and large scale water supply infrastructure for households’ multiple water uses in South Africa

South Africa’s renewed commitment to poverty eradication is voiced in the water sector through the new Strategic Framework for Water for Sustainable Growth and Development. It recognises the catalytic role that water can play in poverty eradication through home- and village-based economic activity of poor households. This sets the table for the implementation of a range of conventional and less conventional infrastructure solutions of all sizes, to respond to people’s need for water for productive uses, and to the diversity of situations found in the South African context. Current institutional arrangements for water supply and management provides a basic framework within which such a range of infrastructure solutions could be implemented, provided some adaptations are made to consultation processes, design criteria and performance measurement. Sufficient attention to operation and maintenance of infrastructure is proving to be a key challenge. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Impact of Multiple Use Water Services in Tori Danda Community, Nepal.

Narayan Singh Khawas & Monique Mikhail: Impact of Multiple Use Water Services in Tori Danda Community, Nepal

This paper draws upon research conducted in the Malewa Basne Multiple-Use Services (MUS) system developed in Tori Danda village of Syangja District in Nepal with support from the Smallholder Irrigation and Marketing Initiative (SIMI) project, the Central Department of Rural Development, Tribhuvan University, and International Development Enterprises (IDE) Nepal. The paper describes how the MUS-by-design process and application of related micro irrigation technologies impacted a community in the middle hills of Nepal. Analysis of project impacts was conducted through selection of a random sample of participant households and data collection through a Participatory Rural Appraisal approach. As one of the first gravity-fed double tank, two line distribution systems designed in the middle hills by the SIMI project, this study of Malewa Basne represents typical MUS implementation challenges and community outcomes. The impact analysis includes increase in vegetable production, marketing aspects, and shifts in intra-household roles. Discussion of the process of MUS development also includes the mitigation of community conflict that arose due to caste dynamics and socio-economic disparities. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Reducing the cost of water using smart technologies.

H. Holtslag & W. Mgina: Reducing the cost of water using smart technologies

To increase rural water supply in Africa, hand piston pumps were widely disseminated in the 1980s. After technical improvements, the focus shifted from technology to the so called VLOM approach (Village Level Operation and Maintenance management) but still 20 - 50% of the hand pumps in sub-Saharan countries are not working at any given time. A major reason seems the lack of capacity of the users to manage the maintenance, and although hand piston pumps are relatively simple it seems that in many cases they are still “hi tech” for the target group. “Lo-Tech” pumps or so called Appropriate Technologies (AT) also often fail because they are not efficient or not accepted because of their “stone age” image. Another reason is the lack of the involvement of the local private enterprises in production, sales and maintenance. When the projects finish, the activities often stop because local production, quality control, sales and marketing (supply chain) are not developed. [authors abstract]