[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Inland Fishery as Additional Source of Income and Protein in Minor Tanks in Sri Lanka.

K.S.H.J.K. Harischandra: Inland Fishery as an Additional Source of Income and Protein in Minor Tanks in Sri Lanka

In the past, village irrigation-tank based fisheries have played an important role in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. However, currently, its contribution to the economy is far below expectation (Ministry of fisheries & ocean resources – 2002). This is mainly due to the poor condition of minor irrigation systems and lack of multiple use approach in the planning and development of these schemes. The Minor Irrigation Tank Rehabilitation project implemented by Plan Sri Lanka supports the development of small irrigation systems in the Anuradhapura district in an integrated manner, taking peoples’ multiple water needs into consideration. Project interventions include infrastructure improvements, capacity building of farmers and partners, integrated watershed management, crop diversification and an inland fishery program to improve livelihoods and food security. Under this project, Twelve of the rehabilitated schemes were identified by the National Aquaculture Development Authority as suitable for inland fisheries and in 2006 /2007, 6 of the 12 tanks were stocked with fingerlings. The economic returns in some tanks have far outweighed the costs incurred. The paper discusses Plan Sri Lanka’s experiences in integrating inland fisheries within its tank rehabilitation project as part of Plan’s MUS programe for poverty alleviation. It will explain demonstrated benefits in income generation, provision of a supplementary protein source for improvement of nutritional status and improved institutional stability. It will highlight best practices in institutional and resource management and appropriate technological practices for increasing benefits and effectiveness in multiple water use. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Poverty impacts of improved access to water and sanitation in Ethiopia.

F. Hagos, T. Slaymaker, J. Tucker, E. Ludi, E. Boelee & S. Awulachew: Poverty impacts of improved access to water and sanitation in Ethiopia

It is often argued that investments in water supply and sanitation (WSS) generate wide-ranging economic benefits. At the household level improved access to WSS is expected to lead to significant improvements not only in human health and welfare but also in levels of production and productivity. Investments in WSS are therefore considered important instruments for poverty reduction, but empirical evidence to support this remains quite limited. This study presents micro-evidence from a survey of 1500 households in Ethiopia on the economic impacts of improved access to WSS. We found that access to improved WSS has a strong statistical association with increased household water consumption and decreased average time spent to fetch water. Because of this time saving, household members with access to improved sources were also found to be more likely to participate in off-farm/non-farm employment. We also found strong evidence of positive impacts of improved access to WSS on health; although there are indications some type of illnesses may also have increased (e.g. water borne diseases). This evidence clearly shows that improving access to water supply infrastructure alone is not sufficient to bring about desired public health benefits. Interestingly, households with access to improved water supply and agricultural water were found to have significantly lower overall and food poverty levels in terms of incidence, depth and severity of poverty. Therefore, the pathways through which improved access to water supply has impacted poverty reduction in the study areas had to do with direct improved health benefits and through time-saving benefits induced increased participation of households in off/non-farm employment and irrigation. Determinants of off/non-farm employment and poverty were systematically analysed and factors identified and recommendations made to enhance these poverty impacts of water supply improvements. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Multiple Functions of Water Management in Paddy Fields.

H. Furihata: Multiple Functions of Water Management in Paddy Fields

Water for agriculture in the paddy area of Asia monsoon regions is not just considered as an economic resource of individual farmers, but is thought to be a common resource shared by a whole rural community and a part of the people's lives. Paddy field irrigation has characteristics not only of negative externalities but also of positive externalities, such as flood prevention and ground water recharge. This paper introduces the multiple uses and functions of water for agriculture in the paddy area of Asia monsoon regions. It maps the high value generated from paddy farming in Asian countries and how this is critical for many communities in addressing the challenges of "Food security and Poverty Alleviation" and "Sustainable Water Use". [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  A livelihood approach to water in rural areas and implications for MUS.

Jean-Marc Faurès, Guido Santini & Audrey Nepveu de Villemarceau: A livelihood approach to water interventions in rural areas and implications for Multiple Use Systems

Among all constraints to development, water has been systematically highlighted as one of the most important challenges to rural poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Highly variable and erratic precipitations, poor development of hydraulic infrastructure and markets, and lack of access to water for domestic and productive uses, all contribute to maintaining high the vulnerability of rural people in the region. Through a recent study, FAO and IFAD have been investigating the linkage between water and rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. The study argues that there are ample opportunities to invest in water in support to rural livelihoods in the region, but that interventions must be targeted adequately. The key word is “context-specificity”, and the main challenge is to understand where and how to invest. A comprehensive approach is needed, where investments in infrastructure are matched with interventions in institutions, knowledge and finance in ways that offer an opportunity to get the best return in terms of poverty reduction, and taking into account the extreme heterogeneity of situations faced by rural people over the region. Multiple use systems (MUS) are important in this context as infrastructure systems better address people’s need than sectoral water development programmes. The paper presents the main results of the study with special emphasis on the potential of investments in multiple use systems in the different livelihood zones of sub-Saharan Africa. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Incorporating Productive Use into Water Systems in Urban Nigeria .

Joachim Ibeziako Ezeji: Incorporating Productive Use into Water Systems in Urban Nigeria

Given the importance of the urban water system to low income productive water users, a functional and efficient utility as well as an appropriate policy framework has been identified as being imperative in order to maximize income and employment benefits for urban productive water users. This is true in Nigeria where water supplies to households by the water utilities have traditionally been confined within what is known as domestic water needs. The quantity of water supplied has often been meant to cover basic needs such as drinking, cooking and personal sanitation needs etc. However this has not been a true reflection of the use of this limited amount of water supplied. Recent studies in other parts of the world have however shown that millions of low-income households now, more than ever before are using their limited water supplies for activities such as productive uses. Such productive uses of water may not really thrive or even take off unless the required quantity of water is available. Such activities often generate numerous benefits to households involved. An understanding of how productive uses of water could successfully be mainstreamed into urban water systems in Nigeria was studied. This involved a social survey of households and institutions in Owerri, Nigeria; where productive uses of water is already real, particularly in activities such as home gardening, horticulture and livestock rearing etc. In view of the persisting problem in water supplies in Nigeria, where water utilities such as the Imo State Water Corporation (ISWC) is still enmeshed in intermittent supplies; the implications for households, especially the productive water users; alternative water suppliers and the government is explored in the paper in order to identify how supply sustainability for these activities could be maximized as a veritable tool vital in the fight against poverty. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Addressing health through multiple use water services.

E. Boelee: Addressing health through multiple use water services

Multiple use water services can bring more health benefits than separate water supplies for domestic and productive uses – if health is explicitly and properly addressed. That means that in the planning phase due attention has to be given to adequate water allocation for various purposes as well as to providing safe sanitation and offering complementary health and hygiene education. These elements can also be useful in step-wise upgrading single purpose systems to multiple use water services. Sufficient water of good quality is needed for drinking water and hygiene. If the system cannot supply adequate water quality, then additional facilities such as home water treatment can be a good solution, provided the users understand and can operate the treatment themselves. The (re-) use of water for home gardens with a variety of vegetables and fruits is important for balanced nutrition. Proper design, construction, operation and maintenance of water systems can avoid the creation of breeding sites for vectors of diseases such as malaria mosquitoes and schistosomiasis snails. Environmental sanitation, including construction and safe use of latrines, but also protection of water resources from pollution by runoff and animals, reduces the demand for water treatment as well as risks of water use (exposure to pathogens and toxic chemicals) for productive and domestic purposes. Upgrading of water services often reduces water collection efforts for women and children, leading to a whole range of additional socio-economic benefits that in turn may bring health benefits, while poverty reduction in itself also leads to improved health. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Experiences on Multiple Use Dams in Sissala West District, Ghana.

G. K. Adu-Wusu, L. Roberts & K. A. Debrah: Experiences on Multiple Use Dams in Sissala West District, Ghana

Plan Ghana works in the Sissala West district in north-western Ghana. The main livelihood of indigenes is rain-fed farming and livestock rearing. Northern Ghana experiences an 8-month long dry season each year, during which farming and livestock watering become extremely difficult. Food shortages occur and people lose their animals. Moreover, rainfall patterns are irregular, causing young crops to wither in incidental prolonged dry periods, a situation aggravated by climate changes. Plan partner communities requested support for the construction of dam facilities to support dry season farming and livestock watering. After feasibility studies, 8 dams were constructed with the aim of improving livelihoods and health of people through sale and consumption of produce from the following intended uses; Irrigation, Fish farming and Livestock watering. Over 1000 households are benefiting from the dams. A total of 95 hectares of land has been put under irrigation growing mainly vegetables. Leafy vegetables are now available on the market in the dam communities. Income levels have increased through the sale of surplus produce. Some community members have taken up fishing whilst livestock have sufficient water. Apart from the intended uses of the dams, they are serving other practical water needs which were not catered for in the design, and bring in additional sources of income; Moulding bricks, Watering dirt-roads and Household cleaning. Data collection on use demands and patterns, especially on the unexpected additional activities, needs to be continued to guide future multiple use of water projects in Plan’s MUS programme.[authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Costs and benefits of multiple uses of water: a case from Ethiopia.

M. Adank, B. Belete, M. Jeths: Costs and benefits of multiple uses of water: a case from Ethiopia

This paper presents a study conducted under the RiPPLE project1, with the objective to provide better insight in the costs and benefits of multiple use water services. In this study, the costs related to the provision of water services and the benefits related to water use were analysed for two cases in the East Haraghe zone, Ethiopia, each taking a different path towards multiple use services. In the Ido Jalala case, domestic water supply services were upgraded to enable small-scale irrigation, while in the Ifa Daba case, irrigation services were upgrades to also cater for domestic water use. In both cases, water was used for multiple uses by the community members, regardless of the water services provided. The study shows that in the studied cases, the benefits of multiple use easily outweigh the costs involved in providing water services. It also shows that with relatively small additional costs, single use water services can be upgraded to multiple use water services, which facilitate multiple uses, bringing along relatively high additional benefits. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Learning alliances for mus in India and Nepal.

Powerpoint presentation by Monique Mikhail, International Development Enterprises, given at the Thematic Group Meeting in London, 2007.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  The Elephant Pump programme.

Powerpoint presentation by Ian Thorpe, PumpAid, given at the Thematic Group Meeting in London, 2007.