[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Technical exchange vist to RAIN's programme in Ethiopia.

Powerpointpresentation held at the MUS Group Meeting 2009 in Rome, anonymus, on RAIN Foundation and its Partners in Ethiopia and MUS Integration.

van Koppen B, Smits S, Moriarty P, de Vries F.W.TPenning, Mikhail M., Boelee E..  2009.  Global: Climbing the Water Ladder - Multiple-Use Water Services for Poverty Reduction.

Sustained access to water in low- and middle-income countries is crucial for domestic use (drinking, personal hygiene, etc.) and is also an imperative for people's livelihoods, income-generating activities and small-scale enterprise (e.g. livestock, horticulture, irrigation, fisheries, brickmaking, and othes). Overall, this book exposes the detrimental effects and impacts of approaching water services in isolated ways -- where the continued practise of separating community water services between domestic use and livelihoods have done little in alleviating poverty.

Noting that the design and management of most water services fail to reflect the 'real-life' use of water, the essay contributions to this book suggest a multiple-use water services (MUS) approach in meeting people's dual water needs. The contributions to this book are drawn from an action research project that explores water systems in eight countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe). Known as the action research project ‘ Models for implementing multiple-use water supply systems for enhanced land and water productivity, rural livelihoods and gender equity’, the findings of the research study is a collective product of engagement amongst 150 institutions worldwide.

This book shows how livelihoods act as the main driver for water services and how access to water is determined by sustainable water resources, appropriate technologies and equitable ways of managing communal systems.

Climbing the water ladder requires a small fraction of total water resources, yet has the potential to help people climb out of poverty. Local government can be the pivot to make this happen. But, it needs support to implement its mandate to meet multiple-use demand and to become more accountable to people in communities.

This book is a joint publication by IWMI, CPWF and IRC.

Below is a link to the PDF version or you order a hard-copy version here.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Technology Adoption and Adaptation for Multiple Use Water Services in the Hills of Nepal.

This paper draws on seven years of multiple use water services (MUS) development effort by International Development Enterprises and partner organizations in Nepal. It describes the genesis of the MUS work and the unique combination of technologies utilized to provide domestic and productive water services. The introduction of micro irrigation technologies enabled households to begin production of high value vegetables, increase their cash income and increase food security. However, scaling up introduction of these technologies required a way for households to increase access to a reliable water supply

Guzha E, Chimbunde E, Khoza SSmits and.  Submitted.  Zimbabwe: technologies for multiple uses of water.

The need for an approach to water supply which aims to cover for both people’s domestic and productive water (the multiple use services, mus, approach) needs has gained recognition over the last few years in Zimbabwe. A range of organisations, especially NGOs are pioneering such approach in their programmes and projects.

In following such a mus approach, these organisations have started to use a range of technologies which enable multiple uses in different degrees. These range from household-based options such as family wells and rainwater harvesting devices to community-based boreholes with bush pumps; and, from drip irrigation kits to associated head works for cattle watering and laundry. These technologies differ in their functioning, their costs and especially their implications for water use.

This paper attempts to systematically document these different technologies. It does so by first providing a typology of the technologies that are being used. This typology is based upon whether technologies are typical household solutions, or communal ones. A further distinction is made along the chain of water sources, extracting and lifting devices, and then distribution devices. Each of the technologies is described in detail, especially in terms of its implications for multiple use of water.

It shows that there is not one single “best” technology for multiple uses. The household-based family wells are more expensive (in per capita costs) than the conventional boreholes with bush pumps, but allow for much higher consumption levels, which can be turned into productive use. This doesn’t mean that family wells can now spread all over the country, as they can only be applied in areas with shallow groundwater. Other technologies such as rainwater harvesting and farm ponds are complementary technology to the family wells or bush pumps, as they cannot guarantee year-round water supply. Finally, a number of technologies can be applied to save water, and reduce labour requirements in putting available water to use, ranging from cattle troughs to drip kits. To what extent these are feasible, depends mainly on the availability of water. When it is easily and readily available, the need for such technologies is less than when more effort is needed to collect water.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Water harvesting ponds and shallow wells in Tigray Region .

Site - Tigray: Water harvesting ponds and shallow wells

The main objectives for the construction of water harvesting ponds in Ethiopia are:

  • To harvest water needed to meet household domestic needs (including livestock);
  • To provide supplementary irrigation to long rain season cereal crops mainly during the drier months of September and October;
  • To provide full irrigation to crops during the dry months of the year.

In Tigray only, the goal is to construct 500,000 ponds in the next years. The target for the year 2003 was to construct 40,000 ponds, 80% made with plastic liners and the rest with clay lining. About 30,600 were actually built. The target for the fiscal year 2004 was 160,000; 23,300 of which were built up to July 2004. The individual household pond is characterized by its catchment the pond itself and the command area; all managed at house hold level. The great advantage of this storage system is the relatively simple social operation and maintenance structure in relation to communal ponds.

Water is directly harvested by runoff or taken from a gully or stream with a diversion structure and stored in a pond to be used when required. The ponds have a square shape, usually 12x12m with internal slope of 1.5-2:1 and a capacity between 30 and 182 m3. Other sizes and shapes are being tested, e.g. 25x25 m with stepped sides. The ponds usually have complementary structures such as feeder canals, access stairs but often do not have a spillway and water lifting is done by bucket. Some of the ponds are fenced but most are not. The location of the pond near the house has been justified by the expectation that this will enable close management by family members and reduce the burden on the already busy daily schedule.

According to an EU Evaluation Report, there is a lot of potential in the region for shallow wells. The Tigray Regional Government is therefore strongly committed to promote the construction of shallow wells, the three-year action plan provide the construction of 8,200 shallow wells (3,000 in 2004). Until June 2004, 931 shallow wells have been dug. Decisions on the dimensions of the well are taken by the farmers. In the majority of cases the farmer digs the well himself with the support of his family. Depth of the well depends on the water table, on average 8 meters deep in the plateau and 15 meters in the highland. The well wall is lined with stones to waterproof it, but usually they are not covered and have no fence; this can be very dangerous and some incidents have already happened. The water is collected with a bucket on a rope; this method is cheap but at the same time dangerous and hard, especially if water has to be transported to the field. In order to improve irrigation techniques in one Woreda (administrative unit), 18 motor pumps are now available and farmers can rent them for 10 birr/day plus fuel price. This solution cannot be considered very practical as farmers consider the renting price too high and because there are not enough motor pumps available.

Several studies have been done on water harvesting ponds and shallow wells in Tigray, mainly by MSc and BSc students from Mekelle University, such as:

- Gebreegziabher Lemma Hagos (Dec05) The role of household ponds on the expansion of homegardens in Tigray, Ethiopia. MSc thesis Mekelle University

de Vries F.W.TPenning, Bhumiwatana SRuaysoongn.  Submitted.  Pond size, farming style and multiple uses.

The optimal size of farm ponds in N.E. Thailand with respect to farming style and multiple uses of water and under various biophysical and socio-economic conditions

[Anonymous].  2007.  Concepción y construcción participativa de un sistema de agua de uso múltiple en la zona rural de Vinto - Bolivia.

Son escasas y poco visualizadas las experiencias de diseño y ejecución de proyectos de Usos Múltiples del Agua (MUS) en Cochabamba - Bolivia. La gran limitante de promover e implementar este tipo de proyecto responde la marcada sectorialización de políticas y normativas de riego y agua potable, y las demandas de apoyo. Es necesario buscar mecanismos que permitan introducir una visión de gestión integral del agua en proyectos y en formas de gestión.

El objetivo de este documento es rescatar factores de éxito y el aprendizaje de un proyecto entre regantes y usuarios de agua potable que culminó con la ejecución de un proyecto integral de agua potable y riego en la cuenca La Llave del municipio de Vinto, articulando las demandas de diversos grupos de interés. Las comunidades involucradas en el proyecto son 7: Vargas Linde, Machajmarca, Motecato, Sexta Parte, Th’iomoco, Anocaraire, Coachaca Este, beneficiando a aproximadamente 4,700 habitantes tanto en riego como en agua potable.

A través de procesos participativos de construcción de consenso y replicabilidad de casos exitosos, el PROMIC-CTB ha facilitado este proceso de negociación, rompiendo el enfoque tradicional de respuesta de demandas con soluciones sectoriales (sólo agua potable o riego) y de corto plazo, carentes de una visión integral y sostenible.

La sistematización de este proceso fue posible gracias a un convenio interinstitucional entre el Programa Manejo Integral de Cuencas (PROMIC) y la Cooperación Técnica Belga (CTB) en el marco del Proyecto Intervenciones Complementarias y el Programa Agua Tuya en el marco del Proyecto Servicios de Usos Múltiples del Agua (MUS) – Challenge Program on Water and Food.

Los motivadores principales para que las organizaciones sociales locales decidan encaminar su proyecto hacía un proyecto de Uso Múltiple fueron: i) El cambio de una visión sectorial de la gestión del agua y de búsqueda de soluciones de corto plazo a una visión de gestión integral del agua y de soluciones de largo plazo, y ii) la reducción considerable de costos de inversión. El hecho de llevar a cabo un proyecto en vez de dos ha posibilitado la reducción del 20% de costos.

A la fecha el proyecto de Agua Potable y Riego del Río la Llave está en una fase de ejecución y todavía falta definir mecanismos apropiados para una gestión conjunta entre la Asociación de Riego y la Asociación de Agua Potable o iniciar la conformación de una Asociación única de agua potable y riego. Los requerimientos de operación y mantenimiento de las obras de toma es un factor que incidirá en que estas dos asociaciones de usuarios establezcan espacios de coordinación; por otro lado, se constituye en un reto conformar una instancia única de usuarios de riego y agua potable. La sistematización del proceso demuestra la existencia de iniciativas dirigenciales para implementar una plataforma de negociación entre diversos grupos de interés a nivel de cuenca. 

Como conclusiones del estudio y con el fin de poder replicar esta experiencia e incidir en políticas públicas se han identificado los siguientes riesgos y factores de éxito, los cuales son desarrollados con más detalle en el presente documento:

Factores de éxito

• Cambio de una visión sectorial y de soluciones de corto plazo del agua, a una visión integral y de soluciones de largo plazo.
• Flujo de información y asistencia técnica oportuna
• Costos reducidos de un Proyecto Múltiple


• Falta de conocimiento y reconocimiento de las prácticas locales del agua a nivel de los técnicos y autoridades del sector de agua y riego, así como falta de previsión por parte de la normativa para prácticas de uso múltiple a nivel domiciliario.
• Dependencia del proyecto hacia instancias no permanentes
• Proceso de organización y capacitación de la comunidad inapropiado
• Incertidumbre en algunas comunidades beneficiarias
• Pugnas de poder entre algunos grupos de interés

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Concepción y construcción participativa de un sistema de agua de uso múltiple en la zona rural de Vinto - Bolivia.

Documento final en formato .pdf que contiene el estudio de caso MUS Vinto (Cochabamba - Bolivia)
NOTA: Este documento está sujeto a revisión y aprobación por parte del PROMIC-CTB, por lo que no deberá ser tomado como información oficial.