This report (in Spanish) documents experiences with PROMIC and the Belgian Technical Cooperation project in the Vinto area to design and construct multiple use water supply systems in the Vinto area.
Presentación de Power Point que resume el estudio de caso de Chaupisuyo en 30 slides que incluyen imágenes y diagramas ilustrativos. NOTA: NOTA: Este documento está sujeto a revisión y aprobación por parte del PROMIC-CTB, por lo que no deberá ser tomado como información oficial.
This report captures the main proceedings, points of discussion and conclusions emanating from the symposium.
Cover page of the proceedings
John Butterworth, Martin Keijzer, Ian Smout and Fitsum Hagos (Eds). Proceedings of the International Symposium Multiple-Use Services; from Practice to Policy. 4-6 November 2008, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
S. Smits, B. van Koppen and P. Moriarty: Characterising the multiple use approach at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries
Multiple-use services (MUS) have gained increased attention, as an approach to of providing water services that meet people’s multiple water needs in an integrated manner. This paper tries to characterise key elements of mus at community level, and assesses performance through a review of case studies conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The cases show that people almost universally use water for domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. The case studies demonstrate how levels of access can be provided by different types and combinations of technologies, and incremental changes made. These need to be accompanied by additional financial and management measures to ensure sustainability of services. The additional requirements posed are considered not to be insurmountable and can all be addressed in a feasible manner, and often justified by the additional benefits. [authors abstract]
S. Mashicila: Evolving mechanisms to implement a range of small and large scale water supply infrastructure for households’ multiple water uses in South Africa
South Africa’s renewed commitment to poverty eradication is voiced in the water sector through the new Strategic Framework for Water for Sustainable Growth and Development. It recognises the catalytic role that water can play in poverty eradication through home- and village-based economic activity of poor households. This sets the table for the implementation of a range of conventional and less conventional infrastructure solutions of all sizes, to respond to people’s need for water for productive uses, and to the diversity of situations found in the South African context. Current institutional arrangements for water supply and management provides a basic framework within which such a range of infrastructure solutions could be implemented, provided some adaptations are made to consultation processes, design criteria and performance measurement. Sufficient attention to operation and maintenance of infrastructure is proving to be a key challenge. [authors abstract]
H. Holtslag & W. Mgina: Reducing the cost of water using smart technologies
To increase rural water supply in Africa, hand piston pumps were widely disseminated in the 1980s. After technical improvements, the focus shifted from technology to the so called VLOM approach (Village Level Operation and Maintenance management) but still 20 - 50% of the hand pumps in sub-Saharan countries are not working at any given time. A major reason seems the lack of capacity of the users to manage the maintenance, and although hand piston pumps are relatively simple it seems that in many cases they are still “hi tech” for the target group. “Lo-Tech” pumps or so called Appropriate Technologies (AT) also often fail because they are not efficient or not accepted because of their “stone age” image. Another reason is the lack of the involvement of the local private enterprises in production, sales and maintenance. When the projects finish, the activities often stop because local production, quality control, sales and marketing (supply chain) are not developed. [authors abstract]
E. Boelee: Addressing health through multiple use water services
Multiple use water services can bring more health benefits than separate water supplies for domestic and productive uses – if health is explicitly and properly addressed. That means that in the planning phase due attention has to be given to adequate water allocation for various purposes as well as to providing safe sanitation and offering complementary health and hygiene education. These elements can also be useful in step-wise upgrading single purpose systems to multiple use water services. Sufficient water of good quality is needed for drinking water and hygiene. If the system cannot supply adequate water quality, then additional facilities such as home water treatment can be a good solution, provided the users understand and can operate the treatment themselves. The (re-) use of water for home gardens with a variety of vegetables and fruits is important for balanced nutrition. Proper design, construction, operation and maintenance of water systems can avoid the creation of breeding sites for vectors of diseases such as malaria mosquitoes and schistosomiasis snails. Environmental sanitation, including construction and safe use of latrines, but also protection of water resources from pollution by runoff and animals, reduces the demand for water treatment as well as risks of water use (exposure to pathogens and toxic chemicals) for productive and domestic purposes. Upgrading of water services often reduces water collection efforts for women and children, leading to a whole range of additional socio-economic benefits that in turn may bring health benefits, while poverty reduction in itself also leads to improved health. [authors abstract]
G. K. Adu-Wusu, L. Roberts & K. A. Debrah: Experiences on Multiple Use Dams in Sissala West District, Ghana
Plan Ghana works in the Sissala West district in north-western Ghana. The main livelihood of indigenes is rain-fed farming and livestock rearing. Northern Ghana experiences an 8-month long dry season each year, during which farming and livestock watering become extremely difficult. Food shortages occur and people lose their animals. Moreover, rainfall patterns are irregular, causing young crops to wither in incidental prolonged dry periods, a situation aggravated by climate changes. Plan partner communities requested support for the construction of dam facilities to support dry season farming and livestock watering. After feasibility studies, 8 dams were constructed with the aim of improving livelihoods and health of people through sale and consumption of produce from the following intended uses; Irrigation, Fish farming and Livestock watering. Over 1000 households are benefiting from the dams. A total of 95 hectares of land has been put under irrigation growing mainly vegetables. Leafy vegetables are now available on the market in the dam communities. Income levels have increased through the sale of surplus produce. Some community members have taken up fishing whilst livestock have sufficient water. Apart from the intended uses of the dams, they are serving other practical water needs which were not catered for in the design, and bring in additional sources of income; Moulding bricks, Watering dirt-roads and Household cleaning. Data collection on use demands and patterns, especially on the unexpected additional activities, needs to be continued to guide future multiple use of water projects in Plan’s MUS programme.[authors abstract]