Water resources

[Anonymous].  Submitted.   Colombia: Multiple uses of water in the micro-catchment of El Chocho.

'Microcuenca de la Quebrada El Chocho'

The El Chocho catchment located in the mountains above Cali in Valle del Cauca Department, Colombia is one of the seven rivers that later flow through the city. This 10 km long and 20 km2 catchment is home to about 15000 people in a rural area that is however strongly influenced by the proximity of the city.

The El Chocho catchment located in the mountains above Cali in Valle del Cauca Department, Colombia is one of the seven rivers that later flow through the city. This 10 km long and 20 km2 catchment is home to about 15000 people in a rural area that is however strongly influenced by the proximity of the city.

The environmental authority in the department, CVC, has currently authorised 22 rights of water abstraction from the El Chocho stream. The largest authorized amounts are for six community-managed gravity-fed piped water supply systems or acueductos. These convey water to the main settlements although some of the users are dispersed over considerable distances. In total, these abstractions account for about 70% of the allocated rights and in parts they abstract all the available flow of the river. The acueductos abstract relatively large volumes of water, equivalent to between 100 and 700 lpcd.

The abstractions are especially large in the upper part of the catchment (and also one lower system, Las Palmas, further down that has two abstractions) because the systems are also used for irrigation, even though the authorisations only permit domestic use. Irrigators here specialise in growing medicinal plants and herbs and livestock are kept in some farms. Actual amounts of water supplied are, however, lower due to system losses. The system that serves the largest number of households (1650 families) in the more densely-settled lower part of the catchment (e.g. 20 persons per hectare in Montebello compared to 1-2 elsewhere) abstracts the least water on a per capita basis, partly due to limited availability of water as a result of the upstream abstractions. In this area, there is also less use of water for productive activities given the high density of settlement.

Two of the smaller systems do manage to supply water for 24 hours a day, however the others offer less continuity in service, for example 2 hours every 3 days in Montebello or 8 hours every two days in Campoalegre. Because of the low continuity, many households in these locations have large storage tanks. In Campoalegre, productive uses at the household level have also been banned with the support of the health secretary. In some of the other systems, productive uses are permitted although technically the users should also have a derogation (on a household basis) from the environmental authority to permit irrigation use. In one system, Las Palmas, there are two separate distribution networks supplying better quality water abstracted further upstream for domestic use, and poorer quality water taken further downstream for irrigation of gardens and some crops.

The systems have low flat-rate tariffs (USD2.8-3.6 per month in the larger systems) that, in general and given the high non-payment rates (25-50%), are not sufficient to cover operation and maintenance costs. These systems suffer from low continuity of service and amongst other factors, including poverty, therefore people are reluctant to pay their bills. One of systems is very well-managed, largely because of a motivated and powerful leader, and has a stepped tariff with low default rates on payment (5%). Because this system is well organised, they attract more investment, however, communities with less capacity to organise and manage find it more difficult to get resources and are caught in a vicious cycle of lack of resources and poor services.

Additionally to the domestic water abstractions, the El Chocho, in the upper part of the catchment is used for both legal and illegal abstractions by households settled outside the main villages. As well as the pressure of abstractions, this small catchment has suffered considerable environmental change linked to land use change, increases in population, discharge of untreated domestic wastewater, poor management of solid wastes, and discharge of the acid waters from numerous small coal mines. These circumstances have led to competition over access to water and concern over the degradation of water sources by activities that affect the quality of water in the stream. However, powerless to intervene, people have been forced to accept most of these impacts, and the environmental authority has relatively information or capacity to address the problems.

In order to face these challenges that threaten their access to a scarce resource in high demand, communities have had to improve their skills and organisation. People have tried for example, unsuccessfully, to organise a water committee for the catchment. Lack of resources, support and capacities were reasons cited for the failure of this initiative.

This report presents an analysis of the catchment, describes the competition generated between water users and the role of both internal and external stakeholders, and proposals for strategies and measures that could protect the catchment and ensure sustainable water supplies in the future. These include: to monitor water quality (currently there is no monitoring of a source that supplies 15000 people) and the wastewater discharges, to develop and monitor environmental management plans for the coal mines, to raise awareness on improved agricultural and sanitation practices, strengthening the concerned environmental authority, controlling future settlement, supporting local water organizations, and facilitating better coordination between internal and external stakeholders.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Proceedings: Intl Symposium on Multiple-Use Services 2008.

John Butterworth, Martin Keijzer, Ian Smout and Fitsum Hagos (Eds). Proceedings of the International Symposium Multiple-Use Services; from Practice to Policy. 4-6 November 2008, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Characterising MUS at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries.

S. Smits, B. van Koppen and P. Moriarty: Characterising the multiple use approach at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries

Multiple-use services (MUS) have gained increased attention, as an approach to of providing water services that meet people’s multiple water needs in an integrated manner. This paper tries to characterise key elements of mus at community level, and assesses performance through a review of case studies conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The cases show that people almost universally use water for domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. The case studies demonstrate how levels of access can be provided by different types and combinations of technologies, and incremental changes made. These need to be accompanied by additional financial and management measures to ensure sustainability of services. The additional requirements posed are considered not to be insurmountable and can all be addressed in a feasible manner, and often justified by the additional benefits. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Impact of Multiple Use Water Services in Tori Danda Community, Nepal.

Narayan Singh Khawas & Monique Mikhail: Impact of Multiple Use Water Services in Tori Danda Community, Nepal

This paper draws upon research conducted in the Malewa Basne Multiple-Use Services (MUS) system developed in Tori Danda village of Syangja District in Nepal with support from the Smallholder Irrigation and Marketing Initiative (SIMI) project, the Central Department of Rural Development, Tribhuvan University, and International Development Enterprises (IDE) Nepal. The paper describes how the MUS-by-design process and application of related micro irrigation technologies impacted a community in the middle hills of Nepal. Analysis of project impacts was conducted through selection of a random sample of participant households and data collection through a Participatory Rural Appraisal approach. As one of the first gravity-fed double tank, two line distribution systems designed in the middle hills by the SIMI project, this study of Malewa Basne represents typical MUS implementation challenges and community outcomes. The impact analysis includes increase in vegetable production, marketing aspects, and shifts in intra-household roles. Discussion of the process of MUS development also includes the mitigation of community conflict that arose due to caste dynamics and socio-economic disparities. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Inland Fishery as Additional Source of Income and Protein in Minor Tanks in Sri Lanka.

K.S.H.J.K. Harischandra: Inland Fishery as an Additional Source of Income and Protein in Minor Tanks in Sri Lanka

In the past, village irrigation-tank based fisheries have played an important role in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. However, currently, its contribution to the economy is far below expectation (Ministry of fisheries & ocean resources – 2002). This is mainly due to the poor condition of minor irrigation systems and lack of multiple use approach in the planning and development of these schemes. The Minor Irrigation Tank Rehabilitation project implemented by Plan Sri Lanka supports the development of small irrigation systems in the Anuradhapura district in an integrated manner, taking peoples’ multiple water needs into consideration. Project interventions include infrastructure improvements, capacity building of farmers and partners, integrated watershed management, crop diversification and an inland fishery program to improve livelihoods and food security. Under this project, Twelve of the rehabilitated schemes were identified by the National Aquaculture Development Authority as suitable for inland fisheries and in 2006 /2007, 6 of the 12 tanks were stocked with fingerlings. The economic returns in some tanks have far outweighed the costs incurred. The paper discusses Plan Sri Lanka’s experiences in integrating inland fisheries within its tank rehabilitation project as part of Plan’s MUS programe for poverty alleviation. It will explain demonstrated benefits in income generation, provision of a supplementary protein source for improvement of nutritional status and improved institutional stability. It will highlight best practices in institutional and resource management and appropriate technological practices for increasing benefits and effectiveness in multiple water use. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Multiple Functions of Water Management in Paddy Fields.

H. Furihata: Multiple Functions of Water Management in Paddy Fields

Water for agriculture in the paddy area of Asia monsoon regions is not just considered as an economic resource of individual farmers, but is thought to be a common resource shared by a whole rural community and a part of the people's lives. Paddy field irrigation has characteristics not only of negative externalities but also of positive externalities, such as flood prevention and ground water recharge. This paper introduces the multiple uses and functions of water for agriculture in the paddy area of Asia monsoon regions. It maps the high value generated from paddy farming in Asian countries and how this is critical for many communities in addressing the challenges of "Food security and Poverty Alleviation" and "Sustainable Water Use". [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  2006.  Bolivia, India and Mali: Water, land and people - voices and insgihts from three continents.

Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) has gained international recognition as an appropriate framework for meeting the challenges of water scarcity. IWRM is fully supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), where experts asked themselves how they and their partners could learn together and in an innovative and forward-looking way from the wealth of existing experience in water and watershed management. This question triggered an initiative named “Water, Land and People – Voices and insights from three continents”, which was implemented in Bolivia, India and Mali, facilitated by Intercooperation. In each of the three countries, a learning group of 12 to 15 participants from different sectors – farmers’ and water users’ associations, project teams, NGOs, private sector, government, SDC staff – jointly defined a learning agenda and deepened topics tools like story-telling to ensure a high level of authenticity while capturing experiences. Participants and facilitators appreciated this innovative tool for enabling them to break with the usual formal setting, see complex issues from previously unperceived angles, and challenge fixed mindsets.

The learning groups concluded that the learning process was most effective and motivating when intermediate results were immediately put to use as inputs for decision-making in other ongoing initiatives (as opposed to working in isolation to achieve a final product). In India, the learning group was consulted by the authorities and thus contributed to the elaboration of revised watershed guidelines. The three learning groups exchanged and presented their preliminary findings during the 4th World Water Forum in Mexico City in March 2006.

Moreover, each learning group presented its findings in an innovative and attractive manner, by putting video, audio and power-point presentations, short stories and comics into interactive presentation CDs. These country-specific products were then partially translated and assembled to form a global product available on DVD as well as on the Internet (www.waterlandpeople.net). This final product provides a rich resource base and is meant to be used by many actors on different levels, ranging from local stakeholders (e.g. water users’ associations and authorities), the SDC and partner institutions to policy-makers and the wider public.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Colombia.

A powerpoint presented by Isabel Dominguez, Cinara Institute Universidad del Valle on June 12th, 2006 on case studies about multiple use of water from Colombia.