[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Ethiopia: Costs and benefits of MUS, Abebe, RIPPLE-Ethiopia.

In this presentation Zemede Abebe and Marieke Adank look into the incremental costs and benefits of different pathways of developing MUS in Ethiopia.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  South Asia & Saharan Africa: MUS cost benefits for the rural poor, Renwick, Winrock Intl.

In this presentation attention is drawn to the outcomes of the Gates funded study on Multiple Use Water Services for the Poor: Assessing the State of Knowledge. The incremental costs for upgrading a system to climb the MUS service ladder were compared with the incremental benefits.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Asia: multiple use of water in flood plains, CGIAR-CPWF.

Presentation on the outcomes of the CGIAR-CPWF action research project looking into multiple-use of water in floodplains. Ecosystem benefit analysis showed that improving practices in rice-fish production through communal management increased the agro-ecological resilience.

Hagos GLemma.  Submitted.  Ethiopia - The role of household ponds in the expansion of homegardens in Tigray.

In three districts of Tigray, northern part of Ethiopia, namely: Hintalo Wajerate, Kilte Awulaelo,
Atsbi Wonberta, a study was conducted to assess the role of household ponds on the expansion of
homegarden and to evaluate the water productivity of household ponds. The methods that were
employed for the study were semi structured questionnaire, field observation, tree inventory, tree
growth measurement and analysis of water productivity of ponds by using water balance models
and water use efficiency indicators. Accordingly, the result of the study indicated that the
construction of household ponds has a great contribution on the expansion of homegardens. The
survival and growth of trees has improved by 15 % and 22 % respectively and the diversity of trees
planted has shown a significant increase. Furthermore, the water productivity result indicated that
the unit crop production per unit supplementary irrigation applied was 75% lower than the
maximum potential water productivity; and the average economic productivity of the pond was
estimated to be 3.8 ETB per cubic meter of water. The study reveals that among the reasons for low
water productivity were inefficient water application and withdrawal method, poor knowledge of
irrigation scheduling, poor selection of crop type and cropping calendar. It was also tried to
quantify some problems in relation to design and implementation approach. Accordingly, because
of the poor design (Trapezoidal shape) the average evaporation loss directly from the ponds was 13
% of the harvested water and the space occupied by the ponds is about 40 % of the land available in
their backyard. Hence, household ponds are more effective and productive when they are
constructed near homesteads for better management. To minimize the direct evaporation loss and
space occupied by trapezoidal ponds other alternatives design needs to be considered. Moreover, in
order to improve the water productivity, introduction of simple family drip irrigation system and
acquainting farmers with scientific irrigation water management system could be among the better

Tulu M.  Submitted.  Ethiopia - estimation of productivity of water harvesting projects.

Water scarcity in these days is a real threat to food production for millions of people in arid and semiarid areas of developing countries. As water becomes one of the most scarce resources in these poor developing countries, the only option available to get out of poverty is to improve the productivity of water in every sector of production. Currently, in some of water stressed areas of Ethiopia, water harvesting technologies are being introduced in the view to secure food through irrigation practices. The major objective of this paper is, therefore, to estimate livestock, domestic use and crop water productivities of SG-2000 water harvesting pilot projects in Ethiopia. The research work is entirely based upon secondary data obtained from various organizations and publications. The water productivity magnitudes for livestock, domestic and crop productions are found to be Birr* 40.71, 213.42 and 8.04 per m3 of water respectively. To show the importance of the opportunity cost of water, these productivity values are recalculated taking the market price of water in rural areas as the denominator. As the result, livestock, domestic use and crop water productivity magnitudes, respectively, are birr 1.63, 8.54 and 0.32 per birr of water. The research finding shows that water used for domestic use and livestock generates the greatest benefit for rural households.

van Koppen B, Smits S, Moriarty P, de Vries F.W.TPenning, Mikhail M., Boelee E..  2009.  Global: Climbing the Water Ladder - Multiple-Use Water Services for Poverty Reduction.

Sustained access to water in low- and middle-income countries is crucial for domestic use (drinking, personal hygiene, etc.) and is also an imperative for people's livelihoods, income-generating activities and small-scale enterprise (e.g. livestock, horticulture, irrigation, fisheries, brickmaking, and othes). Overall, this book exposes the detrimental effects and impacts of approaching water services in isolated ways -- where the continued practise of separating community water services between domestic use and livelihoods have done little in alleviating poverty.

Noting that the design and management of most water services fail to reflect the 'real-life' use of water, the essay contributions to this book suggest a multiple-use water services (MUS) approach in meeting people's dual water needs. The contributions to this book are drawn from an action research project that explores water systems in eight countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe). Known as the action research project ‘ Models for implementing multiple-use water supply systems for enhanced land and water productivity, rural livelihoods and gender equity’, the findings of the research study is a collective product of engagement amongst 150 institutions worldwide.

This book shows how livelihoods act as the main driver for water services and how access to water is determined by sustainable water resources, appropriate technologies and equitable ways of managing communal systems.

Climbing the water ladder requires a small fraction of total water resources, yet has the potential to help people climb out of poverty. Local government can be the pivot to make this happen. But, it needs support to implement its mandate to meet multiple-use demand and to become more accountable to people in communities.

This book is a joint publication by IWMI, CPWF and IRC.

Below is a link to the PDF version or you order a hard-copy version here.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Asia: monetary assessment of multiple functions of irrigation water.

Powerpoint presentation by Kazumi Yamaoka, International Network for Water and Ecosystems in paddy fields (INWEPF), given at the World Water Forum in Turkey, 2009.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Ethiopia: costs and benefits of multiple use.

Powerpoint presentation by Zemede Abebe [and others], RIPPLE MUS Research Team, given at the World Water Forum in Turkey, 2009.

Development AWARD-Associac.  Submitted.  South Africa- Learning support material on water and livelihoods for intermediate-level agencies.

This document provides learning support material on the relation between water and livelihoods. It is directed towards agencies supporting communities on water-related interventions. It helps in analysing the role of water in livelihoods, and participatory planning of interventions to increase water security. It has been developed for the specific context of the Bushbuckridge Local Municipality in South Africa, but is considered relevant for others in South Africa, and elsewhere as well.