Livelihoods

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Gottenburg village.

Gottenburg is located about ten (10) kilometres on the north-eastern side of Hluvukani. This village shares a name with two other neighbouring villages, Thlavekisa and Hlalakahle known as Gottenburg B and C respectively. These are the names used by the department of Agriculture whereas the local municipality uses the local names. Thlavekisa is on the west of Gottenburg and is not in Ward 16 while Hlalakahle is located on the north side.

Initial contact with the village is made through the village Induna (head-man) and the chairperson of the village CDF (Community Development Forum). A meeting was held with these two structures to introduce the SWELL (Securing Water to Enhance Local Livelihoods) concept and to highlight the intention of carrying out an assessment process in the village. It was agreed that the process can take place, a date for the assessment was set and the CDF together with the Induna began inviting villagers to and making arrangements for a meeting that was held at a local school. It was during school vacations so the process did not interfere with school programmes. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Dixie village.

Dixie is located on the most southern part of Ward 16, approximately forty (40) kilometres east of Acornhoek and about twenty (20) kilometres east of Hluvukani. It is flanked on one side by the Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is a government-run nature conservation reserve, and on the other by a privately-run game farm, the Sabie Sand Game Reserve. It is at the end of one long, straight stretch of road that extends from Athol (another village in Ward 16), passes outside Seville B and next to Utah – both are villages in Ward 16.

Dixie is only about 3 km away from its neighbouring village, Utah.

It had been decided by the village leaders that the meeting was to be held at the crèche. Some team members were not happy with the arrangement, citing that it would be breaking the law if this meeting was going to affect the children who attended school. It was then decided that the venue be changed and moved the meeting to the Induna’s kraal. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Delani village.

Delani is a very small village, situated about six (06) kilometres just outside of Hluvukani village. These two villages also share a name, Eglington C and B, respectively. Eglington A is not part of Ward 16.

Initial contact with the village is made through the villageInduna(head-man) and the chairperson of the village CDF (Community Development Forum). A meeting was held with these two structures to introduce the Securing Water to Enhance Local Livelihood (SWELL) concept and to highlight the intention of carrying out an assessment process in the village. It was agreed that the process can take place, a date for the assessment was set and the CDF together with theIndunabegan inviting villagers to and making arrangements for a meeting that was held at a local school. It was during school vacations so the process did not interfere with school programmes.

The Traditional Authority was represented by the village IndunaThe presence of the Induna means a lot to these kinds of processes since there is a tendency by either the Traditional Authority or Local governance (the CDF in particular) to not attend when the other either of the two present. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

Cousins T, Chauke SSmits and.  Submitted.   South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in ward 16, Bushbuckridge.

Over the past years, the NGO AWARD (Association for Water and Rural Development) has been working on a programme entitled SWELL (Securing Water to Enhance Local Livelihoods) in ward 16 of the Bushbuckridge Local Municipality, South Africa. The aim of the programme is to develop an approach for integrated planning of rural water services to enhance people’s livelihoods, especially of the poorest and most vulnerable groups in the communities. This report aims to provide insight into the current role of water in people’s livelihoods and especially how that is shaped by access to water.

The report shows that at first sight typical water-based activities, such as gardening, livestock or small business, are not the main source of livelihood for the people in the area. However, they do play a crucial role in diversifying and reducing vulnerability and dependency on other sources of livelihood. They also do provide important nutritious food and cash to the poorer households.

The extent to which these livelihoods activities can be undertaken depends to a large extent on access to water. Whereas in the area access to water resources is not a major limiting factor, the current infrastructure and its management is. Poor design, operation and maintenance result in frequent break-downs and unreliable supply. As a result people curtail or delay their productive activities. But they are also affected in other aspects of their livelihoods, especially time spent on water collection. As coping strategies they may have to go to neighbouring villages to collect water, buy expensive water from private vendors or store water at household level. The poorest and most vulnerable groups lack the assets to deal with these stresses.

Main recommendations include a number of strategies to improve immediate access to water, especially through clarifying institutional roles and responsibilities and developing operation and maintenance plans. In addition, recommendations are given to integrated planning for multiple uses. Understanding livelihoods, especially of the poorest people and households, is crucial in this.

A full synthesis report can be downloaded here, as well as short summary reports of the villages where the assessments were done.

Katsi L, Siwadi J, Guzha E, Smits FSMakoni.  Submitted.  Zimbabwe- experiences with multiple uses in three districts in Zimbabwe.

Water with all its multiple uses plays a pivotal role in the sustenance of rural livelihoods, especially the poor. As such, the provision of water which go beyond domestic to include water for small-scale productive uses should be encouraged to enhance peoples’ livelihood options by making significant contribution to household income, food security, improved nutrition and health. All these multiple benefits, if combined can assist in the fight against hunger and poverty.

This study was conducted in Mashonaland East province, covering Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts in Zimbabwe for the period December 2005 to May 2006 to assess factors which affect multiple uses of water and their impact on the sustainability of rural water supply sources. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools such as discussions, observations and interviews were used for data collection. The survey found that people indeed require water for productive purposes apart from domestic uses, which are often given top priority. The study found out that multiple uses of water at household level can be affected by segmentation of water services into "domestic" and "productive" water supply schemes, technology and system design, water quality and quantity and distance to water sources among other factors.

The study recommends that water service providers to be able to provide appropriate, efficient and sustainable services, they should understand and appreciate the livelihood needs and priorities of the communities they serve. This calls for the need for harmonization and coordination of water service providers to best respond to communities’ multiple water demands.

Katsi L.  Submitted.  Zimbabwe- Factors enabling and hindering multiple use services in 3 districts of Zimbabwe.

Water with all its multiple uses plays a pivotal role in the sustenance of rural people, especially the poor. As such, the provision of water which go beyond domestic to include water for productive uses can enhance peoples’ livelihood options by making significant contribution to household income, food security, improved nutrition and health. All these multiple benefits, if combined can assist in the fight against hunger and poverty. This study was conducted in Mashonaland East province, covering Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts in Zimbabwe for the period December 2005 to May 2006 to assess factors which affect multiple uses of water and their impact on the sustainability of rural water supply sources. Methodology for participatory assessment was used for data collection. The survey found that people indeed require water for productive purposes apart from domestic uses, which are often given top priority. The study found out that multiple uses of water at household level can be affected by segmentation of water services into domestic and productive water supply schemes, technology and system design, water quality and quantity and distance to water sources among other factors. The study recommends that water providers to be able to provide appropriate, efficient and sustainable services, they should understand and appreciate the livelihood needs and priorities of the communities they serve. This calls for the need for harmonization and coordination of water service providers to best respond to communities’ multiple water demands.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Using water to fight poverty.

Marna de Lange (Water for Food Movement) and Tessa Cousins (Association for Water and Rural Development) wrote an article on using water to fight poverty for the The Mvula Trust 2006 Local Government Water and Sanitation Diary. They highlight amongst other the case study from Ma Tshepo and her successes in increasing food security and income, showing that backyard farming is not backward farming.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Overview of coping strategies in Legedini.

A power point presentation giving a brief overview of the institutions involved in the DAP II project in the Legedini peasant association.

Jeths M, contact) EBoelee(, Huibers F, Simachew D.  Submitted.  Ethiopia: Institutional environment & local coping strategies within a MUS system in Legedini.

Working Title: The institutional environment and the local coping strategies within a MUS system in Legedinini PA, Dire Dawa Administrative Council, Ethiopia

Abstract: The principal study area for this thesis research was the Legedini Peasant Association in Eastern Ethiopia in the Dire Dawa Council, situated in the arid lowlands below 1500m and characterized by degraded land with erratic rainfall and no surface water. The people practice mixed subsistence farming, though cannot be self-sufficient and therefore depend on food aid. End 2002 a borehole for domestic water supply was installed with a submerged pump powered by a diesel generator, plus additional infrastructure. At the same time a nearby spring in the same watershed was developed. Besides the new water system, new crops and innovative methods of irrigation were introduced. All these measures created big expectations in the communities for the future, of being able to produce for the market and move beyond their food insecurity. Indeed these improved infrastructures and new practices brought benefits but also introduced new risks, dependencies and vulnerabilities. The vulnerability of this system became apparent when the pump broke down two years after becoming operational. The selected technology appeared to be too complicated, too costly, and not sufficient imbedded in the institutional framework for this area and therefore not sustainable. The solution for improving rural livelihoods by promoting productive uses of water should be sought in creating other water source options and technologies that are affordable, developing alternative sources of income or accepting the fact that the people will stay dependent on external aid.

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