Livelihoods

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  First impression of the livestock component in MUS.

A draft case study report which will contribute to a description of the general features related to livestock in livelihoods. It will propose indicators to measure the impact of MUS on the uses and users of livestock in this system.

van Hoeve E, van Koppen B, contact) EBoelee(.  Submitted.  Ethiopia- Beyond fetching water for livestock: a gendered sustainable livelihoods framework .

Working Title: Beyond fetching water for livestock: A gendered sustainable livelihood framework to assess livestock-water productivity in Legedini by Esther van Hoeve, Barbara van Koppen, Eline Boelee

Abstract: Livestock water productivity is defined as the amount of water depleted or diverted to produce livestock and livestock products and services (Sonder et al, in prep). However, different livestock species and their products vary in terms of their values and contributions for men and women in reaching livelihood objectives. Similarly, various livestock production systems generate different costs for men and women, resulting from gendered control and access.

In this paper we propose a Gendered Sustainable Livelihood Framework (GSLF), focusing on poor livestock keepers. The framework gives guidance on how to better include gender perspective in holistic assessments and subsequent use of livestock water productivity information and interventions. We use the five assets of the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) to allow an asset based assessment, taking into account access and control mechanisms which are important aspects of gender studies. The GSLF is best applied using participatory discussion tools in order to ensure a common understanding of the issues.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  MUS in Mekong Basin.

Northeast of Thailand is one of main sub-regions of the lower Mekong basin. The rainfalls are moderately low to very low, from 900 mm to 1600 mm annually. Due to the generally flat landscape, capacity of the land to keep water naturally is low only along water ways and depression areas. These water resources were the main natural water resources for the past prior National Development Plans 1-9 from 1961 to present. During the early phase of development, massive forest encroachment for upland crop production has severely degraded natural water resources, on top of land and natural foods. Land carrying capacity was eventually declined and initiated migration of the rural people to the cities. The migration has been coincided with industrial development. However, livelihoods as labors in the cities even further degraded due to family separation.

In the development there were numbers of water resource development but due to low rainfalls and flat landscape, available water resource for irrigation is only around 5% of agricultural lands, and limited to some locations with relatively undulating terrains. On the other hand, general sandy soils with less than 10% clay contents did not allow sufficient water storage in the soil profiles. Moreover underlying rock salt in most part of the region even further limits the use of ground water due to salinity problems. As a result, main strategy for water use of most farmers is to rely on harvesting of rain water for MUS with various strategies.

With desperation of living constraints in rural and subsequently cities, around 30 years ago some farmers have initiated self-reliant systems for primarily household sufficiency on water resource and foods. The most primary strategies were water resource management of effective rain water harvesting by diversion of runoff to farm ponds. The water has been used for multiple uses for both home-uses and production system. In some cases, small shallow wells could be dug close to main water resource for cleaner drinking and home-use. However, in later stages with corrugated iron roofing, drinking water is usually directly collected from roof gutters and kept in jars. Water in farm ponds has been primarily uses for fishery, vegetables, poultry, piggery, cattle, and home industries. In some years if the collected water were sufficient, it may be applied to rice nurseries or even paddy fields during dry spells. With the sufficiency system, simultaneously they could also develop add-on cash generations and self support retirement plans.

As successful examples, around 15 years ago non-government organizations such as World Vision, Population and Community Development Organization, etc. have further supported development and networking of leading farmers for further knowledge development and networking. The support has further strengthened knowledge development and sharing. With the realistic successes at both household and community levels, gradually, farmer leaders were invited to be advisers to government development plans at various hierarchies. The leaders activities have further attracted government development funds to support farmer networks at various aspects, from health to agriculture and environment. As a result, national development plans have been transformed towards bottom up and participatory approaches with various degrees of success. Currently, both government and non-government organizations have joined to work with local organizations for more effective development programs. At the same times, farmer leaders have become involved with most of development plans from social, agriculture, natural resource through environment issues. However, constraints of the development are still on development alternatives of limited water resources at household and farm scales.

With the new policy of Governor CEO strategies, water resource management is a high priority program that still needs technical supports from research at household scale. The constraints have derived from conventional large scale irrigation system that hardly reached poor families. Despite a numbers of small scale irrigation projects; the scale is somewhat square kilometers that hardly reach the poor households. Therefore, participatory technology development at household and farm scale could be potential activities for development of the water resource management systems. The learning alliance approach would be also examples for the rest of Mekong basin for sustainable water resource management plans, such as Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Uso del agua en la comunidad de Challacaba, Distrito 9, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

El Distrito 9 es una de las zonas más pobres de la ciudad de Cochabamba, y el rápido crecimiento de esta área periurbana plantea grandes necesidades de mejorar los servicios de abastecimiento de agua. La comunidad de Challacaba tiene una red de distribución de agua, usada para fines domésticos y para el abrevado de ganado. La agricultura es una actividad de cierta importancia y las aguas residuales de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales son usadas para irrigación. Este caso de estudio es documentado y analizado haciendo énfasis en la sostenibilidad, tecnología y gestión de los servicios de agua.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Documento de trabajo GIRH a nivel de finca en el Quindío, Colombia .

Este caso de estudio lo desarrolla el estudiante de maestría, Marco Antonio Barrios, con apoyo del Instituto Cinara, teniendo como eje de la investigación el análisis de los usos domésticos y productivos del agua a nivel de finca en el Quindío, Colombia.

El sector agrícola en el Quindío incluye actividades como el cultivo de café, plátano, la crianza de animales, la producción de leche y más recientemente un creciente desarrollo turístico y de otras actividades que se derivan de él.

El cultivo de café no requiere de riego, pero su procesamiento demanda importantes volúmenes de agua limpia, la cual es suministrada generalmente por sistemas de abastecimiento construidos y operados por el Comité de Cafeteros. Estos sistemas también son usados para el consumo doméstico.

Han sido desarrolladas tecnologías que reducen el consumo de agua en el proceso de beneficio del café de 40 L/kg de café procesado, hasta 1 L/Kg de café procesado. Sin embargo estas máquinas son costosas (USD3500). La crianza de animales también requiere un abastecimiento de agua segura y limpia. Las actividades turísticas incrementan el consumo de agua para uso “doméstico” en las fincas.

Este estudio se desarrollará en tres fincas (cafetera, producción de leche, combinada con actividades turísticas), enfocándose en el desarrollo de propuestas técnicas para mejorar el uso del agua en este nivel. Serán evaluadas las diferentes fuentes de agua en cantidad y calidad y analizados sus diversos usos (doméstico, cría de animales, riego, etc.)

Se considerarán las posibles opciones para el reuso de aguas residuales y manejo de residuos sólidos. Se espera que las propuestas sean implementadas por los propietarios de las fincas con el apoyo de Cinara.

Una de las etapas de este estudio incluye la socialización de los resultados del proyecto con los propietarios de las fincas cercanas a las intervenidas para recibir sus sugerencias y comentarios e identificar su interés en implementar las alternativas recomendadas.

La pregunta general a resolver por esta investigación es: Como pueden los diferentes tipos de fincas utilizar el agua y disponer las aguas residuales, y que mejoras podrían ser adoptadas para reducir la demanda de agua y minimizar la contaminación?

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Estudio comparativo de altarnativas MUS Caico Alto, Cochabamba - Bolivia .

The “Caico Alto” Community in Cochabamba Bolivia is comprised of 45 households (225 inhabitants). The main economic activity in the area is the dairy milk production. There are a total of 270 cows in the community (an average of 6 cows per household). The Municipality has recently drilled a borehole for the community that has the potential of producing 4 l/s. It is up to the community to exploit the borehole. The community demands the design and construction of a water distribution system capable of distributing the well water to all the families so they can use it for domestic purposes as well as small productive activities at the household level. This study develops four different scenarios (alternatives). All of them employ a pumping station that uses an electrical submersible pump and a locally manufactured pressure tank (“torre hidroneumática”). [authors abstract]

The full report is in Spanish

La comunidad de Caico Alto en Cochabamba-Bolivia está compuesta por 45 viviendas (225 habitantes). La principal actividad económica de la zona es agropecuaria con énfasis en la producción lechera. En la comunidad existen 270 vacas; es decir un promedio de 5 vacas por familia.
La comunidad cuenta actualmente con un pozo nuevo de capaz de producir un caudal de 4 litros/segundo.

A través del presente estudio se elaboraron cuatro escenarios distintos. Todos toman en cuenta una estación de bombeo que utiliza una bomba eléctrica sumergible y un sistema de presurización neumático (torre hidroneumática). Los escenarios difieren básicamente en su capacidad provisión de agua. A mayor volumen, mayor posibilidad de actividades productivas. Por otro lado a mayor capacidad, mayor inversión total requerida.

El documento realiza un estudio comparativo de los costos de invesrión de cuatro escenarios distintos domando encuenta dotaciones de 50,100,250 y 450 litros por persona por día respectivamente.

Para mayor información: http://aguatuya.com

[Anonymous].  2008.  Diseño y evaluación de alternativas para un sistema de uso múltiple de agua para la comunidad de Caico Alto, Cochabamba - Bolivia.
[Anonymous].  2007.  Efectos múltiples de un Sistema de Riego PLUS en la Comunidad de Chaupisuyo, Cochabamba - Bolivia.

Este Estudio de Caso analiza la experiencia de la Comunidad de Chaupisuyo (Municipo de Sipe Sipe, Cochambamba – Bolivia) en la gestión del agua. El caso de Chaupisuyo es un claro ejemplo donde se demuestra que cuando la comunidad tiene libertad de acción y busca sus propias soluciones, es capaz de integrar sus múltiples necesidades con las diferentes fuentes de agua disponibles en la zona y gestionar el agua de manera efectiva.

El estudio se concentra en analizar los múltiples impactos de la implementación de este Sistema de Riego PLUS. El estudio demuestra como este sistema de riego es capaz de ofrecer riego suplementario a la Mita en los meses de la época seca además de incrementar el área de riego en un 35% (70 hectáreas totales sobre 52 hectáreas iniciales).

Pages