Livelihoods

Maluleke N.  Submitted.  South Africa - Water security and vulnerability: perceptions and practices.

The broad objective of this paper is to highlight the complexities of poverty and how understanding vulnerabilities in relation to rural livelihoods can enable water service provision to respond to the needs of the poorest households in communities. This is based upon work carried out in ward 16 of the Bushbuckridge Local Municipality, in the context of participatory assessment and planning with community based structures, local government and a number of government department officials, and the subsequent reflection on what took place there, and its implication.

The report reflects on the challenges of adopting water services delivery approaches based on the livelihoods realities of poor people. In doing so, this paper explores the complexities and practicalities of understanding rural livelihoods systems from a water perspective. Special attention is given to the various ways in which local service providers perceive and conceptualize poverty (and vulnerability), and how their perceptions informs their implementation of services and their selection processes for identifying the poorest households. The understanding (based on ongoing work with stakeholders) is that while there are planning frameworks which encourage an integrated and poverty reduction focused approach to service delivery, in practice this is still a challenging task to achieve, partly due to the complex realities of identifying and reaching the poorest and partly due to the fragmented nature of service delivery processes in most municipal areas in South Africa. The importance of addressing governance issues if we are to achieve water service provision that makes a real contribution to poverty eradication is emphasized.

Some of the key issues to be considered in any attempt to plan services that are based on the livelihoods realities of poor people are outlined in conclusion. Many of these relate to the issue of institutional development and capacity building and include:

• Adopting a learning approach and providing practical tools for unpacking the complex linkages between water and poverty, and for understanding the role of water services in addressing poverty and reducing vulnerabilities.

• A multidisciplinary approach to poverty eradication where water services is recognized as one of the key contribution to poverty alleviation.

• Poverty in rural areas is a result of both physical deprivation and socioeconomic processes and structures; therefore understanding and action must focus on some of the historical, social, economic and political factors leading to vulnerabilities and poverty.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Synthesis report Ward 16.

Securing Water to Enhance Local Livelihood (SWELL) is a community based process that enables villagers of Ward 16, in partnership with relevant stakeholders (Bushbuckridge local municipality, different government departments), to design plans for improving their village water services based on a critical analysis and understanding of their water related problems, needs and opportunities in their specific livelihood context. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Utah village.

The fieldwork for the water and livelihoods assessment in Utah took place over a period of 6 days. It started with a community meeting that explained the purpose of the assessment and during which representatives from the Community Development Forum, the Induna and the Ward Councillor had an opportunity to make input. According the livelihoods framework that was used the fieldwork focused on three levels of assessment namely the broader community level, the inter-household level (differences between households) and the intra-household level (inside the individual households). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques in combination with semi-structured interviews were used to collect the information. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Thorndale village.

Thorndale is located on north-eastern end of Ward 16 on the border of the Manyeleti game reserve. A huge dam that the whole of Ward 16 livestock owners depend on in the dry season is located between this village and another village, Seville B.

The assessment team arrived in the village and went straight to the Induna’s house. It was established that theIndunawas out attending to another community matter regarding the electrification of the village. Team then went to the venue of the meeting which was the local school. This process took place during school vacations, therefore did not interfere with school programmes.

Turnout was quite slow but people were steadily arriving. The chairperson of the CDF (Community Development Forum) officially opened proceedings and welcomed everyone. It was also explained to the community that the Induna was busy with the electricity company hence his absence from this meeting. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Seville B village.

Seville B is located about eighteen (18) kilometres on the south-eastern side of Hluvukani. Its immediate neighbouring villages are Seville C (Ka-Million), which is in the west, Seville A in the south, Utah in the east and Thorndale in the north. All four villages are within a four (04) kilometre radius of Seville B. 

A huge dam that the whole of Ward 16 livestock owners depend on in the dry season is located between this village and Thorndale. Seville B village structures do impose restriction on the use of the dam especially in the dry season, for livestock only. In the wet season some of the water from the dam is treated and pumped into the village reservoir for domestic uses while some of the water is pumped to the neighbouring villages, Utah and Dixie respectively. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Seville C village.

Seville C is located about sixteen (16) kilometres outside of Hluvukani. This is probably the only village in Ward 16 that does not have water availability problems. There are two boreholes that are located between this village and another, Thorndale. These two boreholes are shared between three villages.

Initial contact with the village is made through the villageInduna(head-man) and the chairperson of the village CDF (Community Development Forum). A meeting was held with these two structures to introduce the SWELL (Securing Water to Enhance Local Livelihoods) concept and to highlight the intention of carrying out an assessment process in the village. It was agreed that the process can take place, a date for the assessment was set and the CDF together with theIndunabegan inviting villagers to and making arrangements for a meeting that was held at a local crèche/ kindergarten. The initial meetings were not very difficult to organise given that the chairperson of the CDF in Seville C is a plumber working at the Hluvukani Regional office of the Municipality. we had met him several times before and some form of relationship had already began to develop. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Seville A village.

Seville A is located about seventeen (17) kilometres on the south-eastern side of Hluvukani. Its immediate neighbouring villages are Seville C (Ka-Million), which is in the northerly direction and Seville B (Makrepeng) which is on the north-eastern side. Both these villages are just about five (05) kilometres outside of Seville A.

A pre-assessment meeting was held with the villageInduna(head-man) and members of the Initial contact with the village is made through the villageInduna(head-man) and the CDF (Community Development Forum) including its chairperson. The purpose of the assessment was introduced to these structures that then showed some level of interest in having it take place. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Lephong village.

Lephong village is located near Athol (another village in the Ward) in the south most side of Hluvukani. Sothois the predominant language used by residents in this community while Xitsongais the language in the whole of Ward 16. According to the latest demarcations, this village will be moved to another Ward, i.e. it will no longer form part of Ward 16. The fact that it will be moved to anther ward got some members of village leadership concerned. The concern was with regard to the work that would be carried out by AWARD (the Association for Water and Rural Development), whether it would be useful for them the “new” region that they were being moved to.

The team arrived and found that very few people had turned up for the meeting. The CDF member reassured the team that villagers would come as soon as they realise that the team has arrived. Some of the team members, especially those from government departments, arrive in these villages in their own or work vehicles. One person from the Department of Agriculture suggested that those that had vehicles drive out to remind people of the meeting.

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Hluvukani village.

Hluvukani is the capital of not only Ward 16, but for Wards 15 and 17. The regional offices of the local municipality, the DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) technical and the mobile SAPS (South African Police Services) are all located in this village.

There was a change of venue from the initially agreed venue to a local church so the facilitating team had to wait for people to move from one venue to a new venue. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Assessment report Hlalakahle village.

Hlalakahle is on the Northern, upper-most part of Ward 16. It can be accessed through a main road from Gottenburg or another main road from Thorndale. The northern part of the village is the Manyeleti Game Reserve.

Initial contact with the village is made through the villageInduna(head-man) and the chairperson of the village CDF (Community Development Forum). The CDF in this village is mostly made up of very active women who also run the local crèche/ kindergarten. A meeting was held with these two structures to introduce the SWELL (Securing Water to Enhance Local Livelihoods) concept and to highlight the intention of carrying out an assessment process in the village. It was agreed that the process can take place, a date for the assessment was set and the CDF began inviting villagers to the meeting. It was held at the crèche/kindergarten, which also is the venue for the mobile clinic that visits the village once a month. [authors abstract]

This report is a part of  : “South Africa - Access to water and livelihoods in Ward 16, Bushbuckridge”

Pages