[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Characterising MUS at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries.

S. Smits, B. van Koppen and P. Moriarty: Characterising the multiple use approach at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries

Multiple-use services (MUS) have gained increased attention, as an approach to of providing water services that meet people’s multiple water needs in an integrated manner. This paper tries to characterise key elements of mus at community level, and assesses performance through a review of case studies conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The cases show that people almost universally use water for domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. The case studies demonstrate how levels of access can be provided by different types and combinations of technologies, and incremental changes made. These need to be accompanied by additional financial and management measures to ensure sustainability of services. The additional requirements posed are considered not to be insurmountable and can all be addressed in a feasible manner, and often justified by the additional benefits. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Productive use of domestic water and wastewater in urban Accra, Ghana.

L. Raschid-Sally, D. Van Rooijen & E. Abraham: Analysing productive use of domestic water and wastewater for urban livelihoods of the poor – a study from Accra, Ghana.

Using Accra as an example, the paper records the different urban livelihood activities that utilize domestic water/wastewater, quantifies such use and presents a framework for planning multiple uses in an urban context. The paper provides insights to city planners, water authorities, and researchers on the wide range of ‘other uses’ that urban domestic water supply and wastewater is utilized for and how to quantify such use. From preliminary findings we conclude that the interests of people who use domestic water for livelihood purposes can be better accounted for under conditions of improved access, which will reduce the price they pay for water and increase their profit margin. The constraining factor for making productive use of water is not so much water shortage, as inequity of water access in the city. In the case of wastewater, managing the risk is essential for ensuring sustainability of these livelihoods. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Sources of Water for Household Enterprises in Rural Vietnam.

S. Noel: Sources of Water for Household Enterprises in Rural Vietnam

Small-scale productive activities undertaken in and around the household (e.g., kitchen gardens, raising of livestock, small businesses) require adequate quality and quantities of domestic water to operate. The research analyzed 189 purpose-collected household surveys from 6 villages in 3 provinces in rural areas of Vietnam to investigate patterns of use of domestic water and the impact on household-based productive activities. The findings indicate that these enterprises almost exclusively used ecosystem water, primarily well water, rainwater and water from rivers and lakes. This result held even in villages where piped water was available within the household plot. The conclusions emphasize the importance of natural capital in rural livelihood activities and suggest that patterns of development which draw down wealth in terms of natural capital stocks may adversely affect the poor in developing countries in the long run, even while raising GDP per capita in the short to medium term. [authors abstract]

The full paper has been published in the Water Policy journal.

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Impact of Multiple Use Water Services in Tori Danda Community, Nepal.

Narayan Singh Khawas & Monique Mikhail: Impact of Multiple Use Water Services in Tori Danda Community, Nepal

This paper draws upon research conducted in the Malewa Basne Multiple-Use Services (MUS) system developed in Tori Danda village of Syangja District in Nepal with support from the Smallholder Irrigation and Marketing Initiative (SIMI) project, the Central Department of Rural Development, Tribhuvan University, and International Development Enterprises (IDE) Nepal. The paper describes how the MUS-by-design process and application of related micro irrigation technologies impacted a community in the middle hills of Nepal. Analysis of project impacts was conducted through selection of a random sample of participant households and data collection through a Participatory Rural Appraisal approach. As one of the first gravity-fed double tank, two line distribution systems designed in the middle hills by the SIMI project, this study of Malewa Basne represents typical MUS implementation challenges and community outcomes. The impact analysis includes increase in vegetable production, marketing aspects, and shifts in intra-household roles. Discussion of the process of MUS development also includes the mitigation of community conflict that arose due to caste dynamics and socio-economic disparities. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Inland Fishery as Additional Source of Income and Protein in Minor Tanks in Sri Lanka.

K.S.H.J.K. Harischandra: Inland Fishery as an Additional Source of Income and Protein in Minor Tanks in Sri Lanka

In the past, village irrigation-tank based fisheries have played an important role in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. However, currently, its contribution to the economy is far below expectation (Ministry of fisheries & ocean resources – 2002). This is mainly due to the poor condition of minor irrigation systems and lack of multiple use approach in the planning and development of these schemes. The Minor Irrigation Tank Rehabilitation project implemented by Plan Sri Lanka supports the development of small irrigation systems in the Anuradhapura district in an integrated manner, taking peoples’ multiple water needs into consideration. Project interventions include infrastructure improvements, capacity building of farmers and partners, integrated watershed management, crop diversification and an inland fishery program to improve livelihoods and food security. Under this project, Twelve of the rehabilitated schemes were identified by the National Aquaculture Development Authority as suitable for inland fisheries and in 2006 /2007, 6 of the 12 tanks were stocked with fingerlings. The economic returns in some tanks have far outweighed the costs incurred. The paper discusses Plan Sri Lanka’s experiences in integrating inland fisheries within its tank rehabilitation project as part of Plan’s MUS programe for poverty alleviation. It will explain demonstrated benefits in income generation, provision of a supplementary protein source for improvement of nutritional status and improved institutional stability. It will highlight best practices in institutional and resource management and appropriate technological practices for increasing benefits and effectiveness in multiple water use. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Poverty impacts of improved access to water and sanitation in Ethiopia.

F. Hagos, T. Slaymaker, J. Tucker, E. Ludi, E. Boelee & S. Awulachew: Poverty impacts of improved access to water and sanitation in Ethiopia

It is often argued that investments in water supply and sanitation (WSS) generate wide-ranging economic benefits. At the household level improved access to WSS is expected to lead to significant improvements not only in human health and welfare but also in levels of production and productivity. Investments in WSS are therefore considered important instruments for poverty reduction, but empirical evidence to support this remains quite limited. This study presents micro-evidence from a survey of 1500 households in Ethiopia on the economic impacts of improved access to WSS. We found that access to improved WSS has a strong statistical association with increased household water consumption and decreased average time spent to fetch water. Because of this time saving, household members with access to improved sources were also found to be more likely to participate in off-farm/non-farm employment. We also found strong evidence of positive impacts of improved access to WSS on health; although there are indications some type of illnesses may also have increased (e.g. water borne diseases). This evidence clearly shows that improving access to water supply infrastructure alone is not sufficient to bring about desired public health benefits. Interestingly, households with access to improved water supply and agricultural water were found to have significantly lower overall and food poverty levels in terms of incidence, depth and severity of poverty. Therefore, the pathways through which improved access to water supply has impacted poverty reduction in the study areas had to do with direct improved health benefits and through time-saving benefits induced increased participation of households in off/non-farm employment and irrigation. Determinants of off/non-farm employment and poverty were systematically analysed and factors identified and recommendations made to enhance these poverty impacts of water supply improvements. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Multiple Functions of Water Management in Paddy Fields.

H. Furihata: Multiple Functions of Water Management in Paddy Fields

Water for agriculture in the paddy area of Asia monsoon regions is not just considered as an economic resource of individual farmers, but is thought to be a common resource shared by a whole rural community and a part of the people's lives. Paddy field irrigation has characteristics not only of negative externalities but also of positive externalities, such as flood prevention and ground water recharge. This paper introduces the multiple uses and functions of water for agriculture in the paddy area of Asia monsoon regions. It maps the high value generated from paddy farming in Asian countries and how this is critical for many communities in addressing the challenges of "Food security and Poverty Alleviation" and "Sustainable Water Use". [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  A livelihood approach to water in rural areas and implications for MUS.

Jean-Marc Faurès, Guido Santini & Audrey Nepveu de Villemarceau: A livelihood approach to water interventions in rural areas and implications for Multiple Use Systems

Among all constraints to development, water has been systematically highlighted as one of the most important challenges to rural poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Highly variable and erratic precipitations, poor development of hydraulic infrastructure and markets, and lack of access to water for domestic and productive uses, all contribute to maintaining high the vulnerability of rural people in the region. Through a recent study, FAO and IFAD have been investigating the linkage between water and rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. The study argues that there are ample opportunities to invest in water in support to rural livelihoods in the region, but that interventions must be targeted adequately. The key word is “context-specificity”, and the main challenge is to understand where and how to invest. A comprehensive approach is needed, where investments in infrastructure are matched with interventions in institutions, knowledge and finance in ways that offer an opportunity to get the best return in terms of poverty reduction, and taking into account the extreme heterogeneity of situations faced by rural people over the region. Multiple use systems (MUS) are important in this context as infrastructure systems better address people’s need than sectoral water development programmes. The paper presents the main results of the study with special emphasis on the potential of investments in multiple use systems in the different livelihood zones of sub-Saharan Africa. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Addressing health through multiple use water services.

E. Boelee: Addressing health through multiple use water services

Multiple use water services can bring more health benefits than separate water supplies for domestic and productive uses – if health is explicitly and properly addressed. That means that in the planning phase due attention has to be given to adequate water allocation for various purposes as well as to providing safe sanitation and offering complementary health and hygiene education. These elements can also be useful in step-wise upgrading single purpose systems to multiple use water services. Sufficient water of good quality is needed for drinking water and hygiene. If the system cannot supply adequate water quality, then additional facilities such as home water treatment can be a good solution, provided the users understand and can operate the treatment themselves. The (re-) use of water for home gardens with a variety of vegetables and fruits is important for balanced nutrition. Proper design, construction, operation and maintenance of water systems can avoid the creation of breeding sites for vectors of diseases such as malaria mosquitoes and schistosomiasis snails. Environmental sanitation, including construction and safe use of latrines, but also protection of water resources from pollution by runoff and animals, reduces the demand for water treatment as well as risks of water use (exposure to pathogens and toxic chemicals) for productive and domestic purposes. Upgrading of water services often reduces water collection efforts for women and children, leading to a whole range of additional socio-economic benefits that in turn may bring health benefits, while poverty reduction in itself also leads to improved health. [authors abstract]

[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Experiences on Multiple Use Dams in Sissala West District, Ghana.

G. K. Adu-Wusu, L. Roberts & K. A. Debrah: Experiences on Multiple Use Dams in Sissala West District, Ghana

Plan Ghana works in the Sissala West district in north-western Ghana. The main livelihood of indigenes is rain-fed farming and livestock rearing. Northern Ghana experiences an 8-month long dry season each year, during which farming and livestock watering become extremely difficult. Food shortages occur and people lose their animals. Moreover, rainfall patterns are irregular, causing young crops to wither in incidental prolonged dry periods, a situation aggravated by climate changes. Plan partner communities requested support for the construction of dam facilities to support dry season farming and livestock watering. After feasibility studies, 8 dams were constructed with the aim of improving livelihoods and health of people through sale and consumption of produce from the following intended uses; Irrigation, Fish farming and Livestock watering. Over 1000 households are benefiting from the dams. A total of 95 hectares of land has been put under irrigation growing mainly vegetables. Leafy vegetables are now available on the market in the dam communities. Income levels have increased through the sale of surplus produce. Some community members have taken up fishing whilst livestock have sufficient water. Apart from the intended uses of the dams, they are serving other practical water needs which were not catered for in the design, and bring in additional sources of income; Moulding bricks, Watering dirt-roads and Household cleaning. Data collection on use demands and patterns, especially on the unexpected additional activities, needs to be continued to guide future multiple use of water projects in Plan’s MUS programme.[authors abstract]